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Wellbutrin Withdrawal Symptoms

Wellbutrin withdrawal symptoms (AKA bupropion) can range from mild to moderate or be severe enough to require hospitalization. Be cautious when stopping this medication. Gradual tapering can help to avoid otherwise hard-to-tolerate discomforts as well as life-threatening or health-compromising risks. More information on the risks and phenomena of Wellbutrin withdrawal can be found below.

Wellbutrin withdrawal symptoms may include:
  • Seizures can occur while taking, during tapering, or even after stopping Wellbutrin. Seizures can be life-threatening. If possible, arrange a constant companion or caregiver who is easily accessible to you during and after cessation.18,33
  • Suicidality can occur while taking, tapering, or even after Wellbutrin withdrawal is completed. Stay in close contact with someone who can monitor carefully during and after cessation.4,18
  • Neuropsychiatric phenomena during withdrawal of Wellbutrin are noted on the FDA drug label, but not otherwise specified beyond suicidality and seizures.4
  • Two case studies, one male and one female, each at the same dosages reported nearly identical withdrawal symptoms of anxiety, insomnia, irritability, headache, generalized aches and pains, and feeling like they wanted to crawl out of their skin.8,9
  • Worsening depression 13
  • Dizziness, loss of balance 17
  • Changes in mood, appetite, and sleep 8,14
  • Agitation, irritability, aggressive compulsive behaviors 8,9,18
  • Lethargy, cramps, hallucinations, sweating 18

Wellbutrin withdrawal is not something to do on your own. Despite the known dangers, antidepressants are still typically prescribed without any investigation into other life factors, lab testing, or even a conversation informing the patient about Wellbutrin withdrawal and potential withdrawal symptoms. The shortcomings of this approach seem self-evident.

Depression, smoking addiction, fatigue, and other symptoms for which Wellbutrin© or the equivalent Zyban© is prescribed can actually be the result of a number of complex issues such as hormonal imbalances, vitamin and/or mineral deficiencies, dietary failings, lifestyle factors, food allergies, adrenal fatigue, neurotoxic accumulations like heavy metals, a dysfunctional gut microbiome, and other root causes.25,29


Do Your Symptoms Require Wellbutrin?
successful wellbutrin withdrawal

Alternative to Meds has been the leader in safe antidepressant withdrawal for more than 17 years. Our founding members and many of the staff are survivors of medication debacles. We have outcome studies and published evidence validating our success. We have seen the worst of the worst, and we want you to know that you are not alone.
This video details the story of a woman who had lost the ability to function entirely. She explains how she got her life back from the adverse effects of antidepressants and benzodiazepines. Many people who come to us for help with problematic Wellbutrin withdrawal say “no one can be as bad off as me.” We are not the typical spin-dry rehab. You will easily see that ATMC takes on the worst of the worst, and is truly creating miracles.
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How Long Does Wellbutrin Withdrawal Last?

Each person is a unique combination of circumstances and health factors that will determine the best timeline for safe Wellbutrin withdrawal. As for all antidepressants, gradually stopping Wellbutrin over weeks or months is the safest approach and should be done under careful monitoring and guidance.6,18

What Happens if I Quit Wellbutrin Cold Turkey?

Cold turkey Wellbutrin withdrawal is NOT recommended, except in the case of a medical emergency, such as seizures presenting while on this antidepressant drug. There are many reasons to NOT quit Wellbutrin cold turkey, as well as trying to quit too suddenly.

Some withdrawal effects may present unexpectedly, even after some time has passed since stopping the drug. Protracted Wellbutrin withdrawal symptoms can be debilitating and may require reinstating the drug to stabilize the person before successful titration can occur. According to the FDA drug label, if seizures occur, the drug should be stopped immediately. If other disturbing psychiatric symptoms emerge, these should be reported to your physician so that medication changes can be initiated. Always seek medical guidance for the stopping of and management of drugs like Wellbutrin.4

An increasing trend in modern medicine is prescribing multiple medications. According to a data brief published by the CDC, about 7 out of every 10 adults aged 40-79 in the US and Canada had taken one or more medications in the 30 days before the 2019 survey, and one-fifth of those took 5 or more medications daily.37 This introduces further complexity where Wellbutrin has been used simultaneously with other medications in the treatment of depression or other types of disorders. The CDC also noted that the most commonly prescribed drugs were of the antidepressant class. Many types of medications and substances, including alcohol, can interact negatively with Wellbutrin and such combinations require exact guidance under medical supervision and require discussion with your primary doctor to avoid these risks, especially for planning safe and doable withdrawal.4,7

Learn About Antidepressant Withdrawal

As is well-established, Wellbutrin withdrawal symptoms are the same as for other versions or brand names for the same drug. In medical terms, Wellbutrin is a second-generation NDRI antidepressant medication for the treatment of depressive disorders and is FDA-approved under the name “Zyban” for smoking cessation. It is thought that Wellbutrin inhibits the reuptake of both norepinephrine, (the “N”), and dopamine, (the “D”), according to research by Stahl et al, published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.16 First-generation antidepressants (TCAs such as amitriptyline and MOAIs such as Eutonyl) have largely fallen out of popularity due to their significant burden of adverse side effects including suicides, seizures, and dangerous interactions with other drugs, as well as many foods and beverages common to the Western diet.2

wellbutrin suicidal ideationTragically, second-generation antidepressants such as Wellbutrin and other bupropion-based drugs have not panned out to be as risk-free as drug manufacturers had initially hoped. For example, as stated on the package insert, Wellbutrin showed an increased risk of completed suicide and suicidal attempts, and suicidal thoughts in those under the age of 25 both during clinical trials and after discontinuation.5

The stimulant effects of Wellbutrin were overlooked in early research, but researchers have more closely studied these in recent years. Published papers have shown that bupropion’s molecular profile is similar to that of amphetamines and cocaine.

For instance, studies from recent decades have demonstrated a likely increase in dopamine availability after ingesting Wellbutrin, which is thought associated with the addictiveness of the drug.1,13,16,33

Bringing the neurochemistry of the body and brain back into natural, healthy balance is part of recovery from Wellbutrin withdrawal at Alternative to Meds Center.

Wellbutrin — A Street Drug?

This research clarifies why Wellbutrin has developed a significant street presence for attaining the “high,” described as similar to cocaine, that is produced by crushing and snorting or injecting the drug.12,33 Other side effects and withdrawal adverse effects are featured below along with some of the most commonly asked questions about the antidepressant Wellbutrin.

Special Warning About Wellbutrin Withdrawal Symptoms

Withdrawal symptoms may not appear until some days have passed since the last dose was taken. Symptoms should be closely monitored even well beyond completing the cessation period.18

Discontinuing Wellbutrin can be managed safely under the care of a licensed and knowledgeable physician, though being under the care and supervision of a prescribing doctor particularly familiar with discontinuing antidepressants is recommended.

The safest recommendation is for Wellbutrin withdrawal to take place in an inpatient setting where physical and psychological factors can be immediately observed and addressed for successful recovery in a supportive atmosphere.

What Is Wellbutrin Used For?

Wellbutrin is FDA-approved for the treatment of MDD, (major depressive disorder) in adults aged 25 and older. Under the brand name Zyban, it is prescribed to help in smoking cessation. Despite black box warnings, many physicians practice off-label prescribing 19 for the following:

  • ADHD in the pediatric population
  • Seasonal affective disorder
  • Antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction
  • Weight loss, obesity
  • Depression in bipolar disorder

Important to note, in July 2012 the drugmaker was fined $3 billion for fraudulently promoting Wellbutrin and other prescription medications and for withholding safety data, resulting in the largest drug fraud case in US history up to that date.32

Wellbutrin Side Effects

Four out of every thousand people taking less than 450mg of Wellbutrin daily experience seizures. Seizures are potentially life-threatening and are a hallmark of toxicity.33 Over 450mg daily, the risk increases sevenfold. Also important to note is that 68% to 77% of Wellbutrin-induced seizures occur within the first 4 hours of taking the drug. The higher the dose, the more likely a seizure is to occur, and some seizures can be fatal.1

The side effects listed below are taken from various sources. A comprehensive list of Wellbutrin side effects can be found on the drug label information,4 and in the book entitled “Bupropion” authored by Huecker et al, published by the National Center for Biotechnology Information.19

Wellbutrin side effects can include:

  • Suicidality:  Wellbutrin is associated with suicidal thoughts, and behaviors, including deaths by suicide. Wellbutrin is high-risk in overdoses, meaning an overdose is often fatal.
  • Seizures 1,33
  • Cardiovascular adverse events:  tachycardia
  • Respiratory issues:  rhinitis, pharyngitis
  • Central Nervous System adverse events:  insomnia, headache, migraine, agitation, dizziness, akathisia, restlessness, aggressive or compulsive behaviors
  • Dermatologic:  diaphoresis, flushing, hives, rashes
  • Endocrine:  weight loss
  • Gastrointestinal:  constipation, dry mouth, nausea, stomach pain, nausea, cramps
  • Musculoskeletal:  tremor, twitching, shakiness
  • Ophthalmologic:  blurred vision
  • Psychiatric symptoms:  activation of acute psychosis 20 and/or mania, depression or worsened depression, hallucinations, paranoia, confusion

When used as a meth-like or cocaine-like stimulant, the drug is snorted or injected, releasing the drug into the bloodstream nearly instantly.31 These effects can lead to repeated use and addiction. More information on these phenomena can be found below.

Wellbutrin (bupropion) Alternative Names and Slang

Brand names in the US include Aplenzin©, Buproban©, ForfivoXL©, Wellbutrin SR©, Wellbutrin XL©, Zyban©, Zyban Advantage Pack©, and Budeprion XL©. There are dozens of other brand names for other countries.

Recently, a novel compound containing bupropion was FDA-approved in 2022 called Auvelity©. This one combines bupropion and dextromethorphan. Dextromethorphan is the main ingredient in many cough suppressants. Auvelity causes the same side effects as other versions of bupropion, including seizures, mania, psychosis, suicidality, and others. The label instructs Auvelity extended-release tablets to be taken twice daily for major depressive disorder. Information from the label tells us its effects come on more quickly but also wear off more quickly over the day than straight bupropion. Of some concern, the instructions simply state that if psychosis or other psychiatric symptoms develop, stop taking the drug.35,36

Wellbutrin Abuse and Addiction

According to medical literature, all of Wellbutrin’s various versions have been shown to be particularly subject to abuse and addiction, and there are substantial risks for recreational users. The literature shows a growing trend both on city streets and in prison populations. The drug Wellbutrin is commonly referred to as “poor man’s cocaine” for its cocaine-like stimulant effects. Prescription drug diversion has caused huge concern for healthcare workers.31

No matter the given name, bupropion or Wellbutrin withdrawals have the potential to cause similar adverse effects.

Wellbutrin Withdrawal FAQs

The following are some of the most frequently asked questions regarding Wellbutrin. It should be noted that the data applies equally to all other versions of the drug.

</p> <h3>Can Wellbutrin Cause Weight Loss?</h3> <p>
Yes, Wellbutrin can cause weight loss in some who take it. The reasons are not clearly understood but the drug is known to suppress the appetite by causing digestive discomfort. Wellbutrin withdrawal can reverse the adverse effects on appetite, digestion, weight, and other gastro problems.

Since it acts on stimulatory aspects of neurochemistry, this amphetamine-like effect is likely a component in bupropion-associated weight loss.38

</p> <h3>Can Wellbutrin Get You High?</h3> <p>
Wellbutrin has structural similarities to cocaine, amphetamines, and various compounds of amphetamines which class includes methamphetamines and MDMA, otherwise known as ecstasy.1

Therefore, some features of Wellbutrin withdrawal mimic those of stimulant drugs with similar structures and mechanisms of action.

Risks of Wellbutrin Abuse

Reportedly, bupropion or Wellbutrin products are sometimes used recreationally by crushing and snorting or injection, which users say causes a cocaine-like high. Injecting Wellbutrin has been shown to cause gruesome lesions and blood vessel damage, clots, and infected abscesses, which despite their risks to health, do not significantly deter or curb such use from continuing. It is estimated that in one large Canadian city, approximately half of all IV drug users there have used Wellbutrin in this fashion.2,3,20

When used as a meth-like or cocaine-like stimulant, snorting or injecting the drug releases bupropion into the bloodstream nearly instantly, causing such effects as:

  • Euphoria, high, exhilaration
  • Insomnia
  • Hallucination
  • Paranoia, feelings of persecution
  • Seizures
  • Necrosis of the injection site (irreversible cell injury leading to cell death)40
  • Cellulitis (tenderness, inflammation, redness of the skin)39
</p> <h3>Can Wellbutrin Be Used for Smoking Cessation (Quitting Nicotine)?</h3> <p>
Wellbutrin is the brand name for bupropion when a physician prescribes it to treat depression (or prescribes it off-label for other reasons). However, the active ingredient, bupropion, is identical to that used in Zyban, sold for quitting smoking. Therefore, Zyban and Wellbutrin and bupropion, the generic name, are identical drugs despite the different name tags and how the FDA categorizes these drugs. Therefore, information on Wellbutrin and Wellbutrin withdrawal can be applied to all of these various drug names.

In a somewhat puzzling set of guidelines, regulars recommend Zyban for quitting smoking but not for treating depression.

Conversely, Wellbutrin was FDA-approved to treat depression, but regulators did not grant FDA-approved for quitting smoking.4

Can You Stop Taking Wellbutrin Suddenly?

According to Stall et al, early research described Wellbutrin as a drug that did not cause psychostimulant effects. However, the authors report that more recent research shows growing concern over Wellbutrin as an addictive drug with a high risk of abuse. Many persons have become inadvertently dependent on bupropion, especially by abusing the drug recreationally by snorting or injection for increased drug effects, which users describe as similar to cocaine or amphetamines.33

Whether or not the person took the drug as prescribed, or as a drug of choice for abuse, the risks, barriers, and difficulties of abrupt Wellbutrin withdrawal are well-documented.

Despite the drug’s dangers, one must approach Wellbutrin withdrawals gently and gradually. Do not attempt to stop bupropion or any antidepressant drug suddenly, or too quickly. The harsh kickback can cause a person to fail, and continue in the trap of drug dependence and drug addiction.

Gradual reduction helps a person reach their goal of stopping Wellbutrin safely.

Treatment for Wellbutrin Abuse and Addiction

Alternative to Meds Center provides holistic treatments that are extremely useful for managing Wellbutrin withdrawal. Notably, research shows that over time, drugs decrease the production of natural neurochemical receptors. This is thought to be the leading cause of drug tolerance and dependence.22

holistic recovery from antidepressants addictionThe use of nutritional testing and correction of nutritional deficiencies are parts of the treatment regimen at the center. Treatment at ATMC aims to provide the raw materials so the body can rebuild its neurochemistry back to a healthy and functioning state.34

The importance of this strategy can not be overstated.

Neurotoxins and Mental Health

For many years, a large body of evidence demonstrates that neurotoxic substances such as mercury, lead, cadmium, pesticides, etc., lodge in the body and commonly create symptoms that are subject to being misdiagnosed as “mental illness.” 23-25 In contrast, neurotoxin removal allows stasis to return in a natural and healthy way. Cleansing therapies are some of our most popular therapies delivered during Wellbutrin withdrawal. Also, CBT and other genres of counseling greatly assist drug recovery and provide reliable relief in areas of unhandled trauma, life upheavals, losses, and other personal areas that respond well to counseling.26

The safest and most stress-free way to discontinue Wellbutrin is to enroll in an inpatient facility that is equipped to carefully monitor and avoid severe withdrawal symptoms. Programs at Alternative to Meds Center utilize holistic psychiatry and are highly enriched with alternative treatments to safely resolve underlying causes of symptoms. Nutritional psychiatry is a fundamental pillar of regaining mental wellness.

Help at Alternative to Meds for Safe and Comfortable Wellbutrin Withdrawal

Adjunctive therapies provided at Alternative to Meds Center, such as working with an Equine therapist, yoga instructor, or acupuncturist, or learning Qi Gong, for some very popular examples, can help not only during recovery but for the rest of your life. Additionally, you can research the vast range of therapeutics offered on our services overview pages. You may be interested in applying drug-free methods to quit smoking, alleviate stress, or make lifestyle changes. We cannot over-emphasize the importance of diet, supplements, and exercise for natural mental health, which can empower a person to maintain natural mental health for real, without needing to rely on medication.27-30

Alternative to Meds Center offers a dual-diagnosis set of protocols well-equipped to address both sides of addiction or drug dependence. Above all, the protocols at ATMC aim to discover and treat the root cause(s) of such difficulties without drugs. Please contact us for more information on the programs we offer at Alternative to Meds Center, designed to successfully treat dependence or addiction and also to find solutions for the underlying symptoms that may have led to addiction or dependence on antidepressant drugs in the first place. Please also feel free to inquire about insurance coverage, estimated length of stay, and any other details about our Wellbutrin withdrawal program you or a loved one may be interested in learning more about.


Sources:

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2. Sub Laban T, Saadabadi A. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI) [Updated 2021 Apr 16]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539848/ [cited 2023 May 22]

3. Victoria, “Difference Between Zyban and Wellbutrin” DifferenceBetween.net. 2011 Jan 27 [cited 2023 May 22]

4. FDA drug label “Wellbutrin (bupropion hydrochloride Tablets.” [N.D] Ref. No 2978172 [cited 2023 May 22]

5. Wooltorton E, “Health and Drug Alerts: Bupropion (Zyban, Wellbutrin SR) : reports of deaths, seizures, serum sickness.” CMAJ 2002 Jan 8, PMID 11800252 [cited 2023 May 22]

6. Wilson E, Lader M. A review of the management of antidepressant discontinuation symptoms. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol. 2015;5(6):357-368. doi:10.1177/2045125315612334 [cited 2023 May 22]

7. Xue C, Zhang X, Cai W. Prediction of Drug-Drug Interactions with Bupropion and Its Metabolites as CYP2D6 Inhibitors Using a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model. Pharmaceutics. 2017 Dec 21;10(1):1. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics10010001. PMID: 29267251; PMCID: PMC5874814. [cited 2023 May 22]

8. Berigan TR, Harazin JS. Bupropion-Associated Withdrawal Symptoms: A Case Report. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;1(2):50-51. doi:10.4088/pcc.v01n0205 [cited 2023 May 22]

9. Berigan TR. Bupropion-Associated Withdrawal Symptoms Revisited: A Case Report. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;4(2):78. doi:10.4088/pcc.v04n0208a [cited 2023 May 22]

10. Hill S, Sikand H, Lee J. A case report of seizure induced by bupropion nasal insufflation. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;9(1):67-69. doi:10.4088/pcc.v09n0114a [cited 2023 May 22]

11. Cooper BR, Hester TJ, Maxwell RA. Behavioral and biochemical effects of the antidepressant bupropion (Wellbutrin): evidence for selective blockade of dopamine uptake in vivo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1980 Oct;215(1):127-34. PMID: 6778989. [cited 2023 May 22]

12. Stassinos GL, Klein-Schwartz W. Bupropion “Abuse” Reported to US Poison Centers. J Addict Med. 2016 Sep-Oct;10(5):357-62. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000249. PMID: 27504927.[cited 2023 May 22]

13. Tint A, Haddad PM, Anderson IM. The effect of rate of antidepressant tapering on the incidence of discontinuation symptoms: a randomised study. J Psychopharmacol. 2008 May;22(3):330-2. doi: 10.1177/0269881107081550. Erratum in: J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Nov;23(8):1006. PMID: 18515448. [cited 2023 May 22]

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15. Fava M, Rush AJ, Thase ME, et al. 15 years of clinical experience with bupropion HCl: from bupropion to bupropion SR to bupropion XLPrim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;7(3):106-113. doi:10.4088/pcc.v07n0305 [cited 2023 May 22]

16. Stahl SM, Pradko JF, Haight BR, Modell JG, Rockett CB, Learned-Coughlin S. A Review of the Neuropharmacology of Bupropion, a Dual Norepinephrine and Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitor. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;6(4):159-166. doi:10.4088/pcc.v06n0403 [cited 2023 May 22]

17. Wilson E, Lader M. A review of the management of antidepressant discontinuation symptoms. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol. 2015;5(6):357-368. doi:10.1177/2045125315612334 [cited 2023 May 22]

18. Fava GA, Benasi G, Lucente M, Offidani E, Cosci F, Guidi J. Withdrawal Symptoms after Serotonin-Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitor Discontinuation: Systematic Review. Psychother Psychosom. 2018;87(4):195-203. doi: 10.1159/000491524. Epub 2018 Jul 17. PMID: 30016772. [cited 2023 May 22]

19. Huecker MR, Smiley A, Saadabadi A. Bupropion. [Updated 2023 Apr 9]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470212/  [cited 2023 July 14]

20. Strike M, Hatcher S. Bupropion injection resulting in tissue necrosis and psychosis: previously undocumented complications of intravenous bupropion use disorder. J Addict Med. 2015 May-Jun;9(3):246-50. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000114. PMID: 25822212. [cited 2023 May 22]

21. Munoli RN, Kongasseri S, Praharaj SK, Sharma PS. Bupropion precipitating acute psychosis: a case report. Am J Ther. 2014 Mar-Apr;21(2):e45-7. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0b013e31823581c8. PMID: 23698185. [cited 2023 May 22]

22. NIDA. Impacts of Drugs on Neurotransmission. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. March 9, 2017 [cited 2023 May 22]

23. Barry JD, Wills BK. Neurotoxic emergencies. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2013 Jun;36(2):219-44. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2013.02.003. Epub 2013 Apr 11. PMID: 23688689. [cited 2023 May 22]

24. Orisakwe OE. The role of lead and cadmium in psychiatry. N Am J Med Sci. 2014;6(8):370-376. doi:10.4103/1947-2714.139283 [cited 2023 May 22]

25. Rare Diseases Govt. Fact Sheet, “Heavy Metal Poisoning.” April 27, 2017[cited 2023 May 22]

26. Lissemore, J.I., Sookman, D., Gravel, P. et al. Brain serotonin synthesis capacity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: effects of cognitive behavioral therapy and sertraline. Transl Psychiatry 8, 82 (2018). [cited 2023 May 22]

27. Penckofer S, Kouba J, Byrn M, Estwing Ferrans C. Vitamin D and depression: where is all the sunshine?. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2010;31(6):385-393. doi:10.3109/01612840903437657.[cited 2023 May 22]

28. Weir, K, “The Exercise Effect.” American Psychological Association Vol 42, No. 11 [cited 2023 May 22]

29. Understanding nutrition, depression and mental illnesses Indian J Psychiatry. 2008 Apr-Jun; 50(2): 77–82. T. S. Sathyanarayana Rao, M. R. Asha, B. N. Ramesh, and K. S. Jagannatha Rao. [cited 2023 May 22]

30. Hage MP, Azar ST. The Link between Thyroid Function and Depression. J Thyroid Res. 2012;2012:590648. doi:10.1155/2012/590648. [cited 2023 May 22]

31. Schifano F, Chiappini S, Corkery JM, Guirguis A. Abuse of Prescription Drugs in the Context of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS): A Systematic Review. Brain Sci. 2018 Apr 22;8(4):73. doi: 10.3390/brainsci8040073. PMID: 29690558; PMCID: PMC5924409. [cited 2023 May 22]

32. DOJ “GlaxoSmithKlein to Plead Guilty and to pay $3 Billion to Resolve Fraud Allegations and Failure to Report Safety Data, Largest Health Fraud Settlement in US History” [published online] [cited 2023 May 22]

33. Stall N, Godwin J, Juurlink D. Bupropion abuse and overdoseCMAJ. 2014;186(13):1015. doi:10.1503/cmaj.131534 [cited 2023 May 22]

34. van Praag HM. Serotonin precursors in the treatment of depression. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol. 1982;34:259-86. PMID: 6753514. [cited 2023 May 22]

35. Zagorski N, American Psychiatric Assn News FDA Approves Rapid-Acting Oral Antidepressant [published 24 Oct 2022 online] [cited 2023 May 22]

36. FDA label Auvellty (extromethorphan hydrobromide and bupropion HCL) extended-release tablets for oral use [cited 2023 May 22]

37. CDC Data Brief #347 Prescription Drug Use Among Adults Aged 40-79 in the US and Canada [published August 2019] [cited 2023 Aug 8]

38. Gadde KM, Parker CB, Maner LG, Wagner HR 2nd, Logue EJ, Drezner MK, Krishnan KR. Bupropion for weight loss: an investigation of efficacy and tolerability in overweight and obese women. Obes Res. 2001 Sep;9(9):544-51. doi: 10.1038/oby.2001.71. PMID: 11557835. [cited 2023 Aug 8]

39. Bystritsky RJ. Cellulitis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2021 Mar;35(1):49-60. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2020.10.002. PMID: 33494874. [cited 2023 Aug 8]

40. Khalid N, Azimpouran M. Necrosis. [Updated 2023 Mar 6]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557627/ [cited 2023 Aug 8]


Originally Published July 28, 2021 by Diane Ridaeus


This content has been reviewed and approved by a licensed physician.

Dr. John Motl, M.D.

Dr. Motl is currently certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology in Psychiatry, and Board eligible in Neurology and licensed in the state of Arizona.  He holds a Bachelor of Science degree with a major in biology and minors in chemistry and philosophy. He graduated from Creighton University School of Medicine with a Doctor of Medicine.  Dr. Motl has studied Medical Acupuncture at the Colorado School of Traditional Chinese Medicine and at U.C.L.A.

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Wellbutrin Withdrawal Symptoms, bupropion Side Effects, Treatment Help
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