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Klonopin (clonazepam) Withdrawal Symptoms

Have you suffered Klonopin withdrawals that prevented your success in recovery? Although clonazepam, sold under the trade name Klonopin© is considered a long-acting benzodiazepine, it still needs to be discontinued carefully and gradually enough to give the body time to adjust to a decreasing dosage over time. There can be many adverse effects when coming off benzodiazepines. These drugs have been described as harder to withdraw from than heroin or other opiates.2,5

Clonazepam withdrawals can include:
  • Sleep disturbances, rebound insomnia, nightmares 7-11
  • Seizures, muscle spasms, tics, jerking motions, tremors* 1,8,9,19
  • Suicidality, worsened depression, dysphoria 1,8
  • Increased anxiety, panic attacks, rebound anxiety 1,7-11
  • Paranoia 8,19
  • Abnormal sense distortions, sensory hypersensitivity, hyperosmia (overwhelming sensitivity to smell) 8,32
  • Patches of numbness, tingling, heat or cold, itching, feelings of electric shock 19
  • Visual or perception disturbances, blurred vision, tilting walls or floors 7,8,19
  • Mania, delusions, hallucinations, delirium, psychotic reactions, catatonia in the elderly 1,7,8,12,32
  • Mood swings, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, anger 1,8
  • Restlessness, compulsions, agitation, pacing, marching, etc.1,8
  • Vertigo, faintness, dizziness, lightheadedness 8,32
  • Nausea, stomach pain, appetite changes, anorexia, dry retching, cramps 1,7,8,32
  • Confusion, mental fog, and feeling disoriented, especially in elderly patients 8,12
  • Feelings of unreality, depersonalization, de-realization 8,31,32
  • Tinnitus 20
  • Metallic taste 32
  • Shooting pains in the spine, neck, and muscle pain 8
  • Stiffness/tension in the neck, jaw, feet, hands, limbs, back, scalp, forehead, postural hypotension 8,19,32
  • Weakened immune system 19
  • Headache 7,8

*The FDA has issued warnings concerning the risk for status epilepticus1 that may emerge during clonazepam withdrawal. Grand mal seizures have been documented with abrupt benzodiazepine withdrawal.8,13f

Too many doctors and detox centers unwittingly let their patients down with mismanaged clonazepam withdrawal. Clonazepam ( Klonopin ) does not lend itself to a rapid withdrawal and the reduction needs to be done slowly, precisely, and compassionately.2

Clonazepam, like all benzodiazepines, can manifest nasty withdrawal complications, often far worse than heroin. Yet, according to the DEA, as a schedule IV drug,6 Klonopin has “a low potential for abuse and low risk of dependence.” That would be laughable were it not such a tragic misrepresentation that then gets conveyed to unsuspecting patients.1,9,33

Do Your Symptoms Require Clonazepam?

clonazepam addiction withdrawal
Alternative to Meds has been a world expert on effective, safe benzodiazepine withdrawal for more than fifteen years. Our published evidence reflects an astounding 87.5% long-term success rate for our clients. In conjunction with slow tapering techniques, we use holistic supplementation, and counseling, along with neurotoxin removal. Clearing accumulated toxins assists with the withdrawal and also provides lasting relief after the clonazepam withdrawal is complete. While some people need only good discontinuation strategies, others are neurotoxic, meaning their neurochemistry may have gone into overdrive. Simply reducing the dose will not be enough to restore health. Techniques are needed that lessen that toxic burden before they can expect to find relief without the drugs. Each person’s profile has to be addressed in all its unique detail, and that is how we are able to effectively relieve and resolve these unwanted symptoms for long-lasting relief during and after clonazepam withdrawal.

You are likely painfully aware of the horrors of this drug. Trying to navigate life on Klonopin can be a mess. Yet trying to get off of it can feel worse than death if it is done poorly. You probably feel trapped and feel no one understands your suffering. Then you sound just like we did … and that’s why we are doing this work.
Please watch the videos you see here or call us to get hope for your situation.

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What is Clonazepam (Klonopin) Used For?

Clonazepam or Klonopin is a prescribed medication in the benzodiazepine class, which the FDA describes as a long-acting, high-potency benzodiazepine with anti-convulsive and anxiolytic, sedative properties.7,8 Clonazepam is FDA-approved to treat seizure and panic disorders in adults and children.1

Whether a prescriber gave the drug for on or off-label reasons, Klonopin withdrawal is still likely especially when cessation is abrupt or too fast.   

Quite a number of off-label uses (not approved by the FDA or other drug regulators) for Klonopin have been reported in the medical literature, as shown below.13,14,21

Off Label Uses for Klonopin include:

  • Panic Disorder (a psychiatric mental disorder characterized by unfounded terror episodes that can occur frequently and unexpectedly).
  • Seizure Disorders (any of a number of epilepsy conditions characterized by seizures)
  • Agoraphobia (an anxiety disorder characterized by something in the environment that triggers fear, where a person feels unsafe and unable to escape such as in a mall, subway, outside the home, etc. )34
  • Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (a type of epilepsy characterized by repeating seizures)
  • Absence Seizures (a type of epilepsy, also called petit mal seizures: short-lived seizures that cause a temporary blank-out, or staring into space for a few seconds)
  • Anxiety Disorders (a group of mental disorders characterized by episodes of stress, worry, fretting, social anxiety disorder, etc.)
  • OCD (a psychiatric condition where a person feels compelled to repeat actions or words or patterns to avoid the anxiety that presents if these actions are not performed).35
  • PTSD ( post-traumatic stress disorder, after an event characterized by terror, the threat of death, or similar, where these past events can be triggered in the present by certain environmental reminders, recreating the sense of terror or shock, etc., from the past experience.).
  • Mania (a psychiatric condition characterized by a flight of ideas, illusions, feelings of superhuman ability, euphoria, power, etc.)
  • Restless legs
  • Tardive Dyskinesia
  • Insomnia, REM sleep behavior disorder

Klonopin, clonazepam, Other Names and Slang

Clonazepam is a generic drug sold under brand names such as Klonopin, or Rivotril.36 According to the DEA, street names for benzodiazepines include “downers,” “nerve pills,” “tranks,” and “benzos.” Klonopin is one of the top five benzodiazepines available on the street. Other names for Klonopin according to the Dept. of Consumer Protection include “KPins,” “Pins,” “K-cuts,” or “super Valium” when sold on the street.15,16

The drug has become somewhat popularized not only as a fast-acting sedative drug, but also for its near-immediate euphoric effects, and is considered a drug of high risk for abuse and addiction.1,33,37 The broad medical consensus now advises that benzodiazepines should only be taken for short-term use because of their addictive properties. Recommendations from the Ashton research materials say to prescribe for 1-7 days up to a maximum of 2-4 weeks.17

The British Journal of Pharmacology concurs and also advises that benzodiazepines should not be a first-line treatment choice, but where they are prescribed, they should only be used short-term. As one might expect then, many people have become inadvertently addicted to benzodiazepines such as Klonopin, and may even resort to obtaining them off the street in a desperate attempt to prevent the drug’s horrific withdrawals. 15,16.18

Clonazepam Adverse Effects

The negative effects of Klonopin can be quite severe and can significantly discount any perceived benefits of the drug. Many of the side effects are replicated during Klonopin withdrawal. Medical consensus advises that benzodiazepines should only be used short-term for anxiety, as the adverse effects can become much more formidable over time.9,18, 21-23,37

Common negative effects of Klonopin can include:
  • Respiratory depression, respiratory arrest, slowed or difficult breathing, contraindicated in persons with sleep apnea.
  • Depression
  • Increased anxiety
  • Euphoria
  • Flu-like symptoms, such as a runny nose, fever, diarrhea, etc.
  • Increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease
  • Increased risk of pneumonia in older adults and other age groups
  • Insomnia, disturbed sleep, strange dreams
  • Difficulty speaking, slurred speech
  • Unsteady or slow movements
  • Motor movement disorders, akathisia, restlessness, pacing, marching, rocking, etc.
  • Sedation, tiredness, drowsiness
  • Vision becomes blurred, double vision, cyclic eyelid movement, difficulty focusing
  • Headaches
  • Dry mouth
  • Excessive salivation
  • Reduced appetite
  • Sore gums
  • Constipation
  • Memory loss
  • Cognitive impairment
  • Confusion, becomes disoriented

When benzodiazepines are mixed with other CNS depressants such as opioids, alcohol, or others, the synergistic effects can become much more severe and can be fatal. The FDA has placed a black box warning on benzodiazepines to alert consumers about the potentially deadly interactions of clonazepam with opioids and other medications.1,37

Discontinuing Klonopin Safely

Clonazepam withdrawal should never be abrupt, or “cold turkey.” When this drug, like other similar medications, is withdrawn all at once, or too abruptly, Klonopin withdrawal symptoms can become extremely harsh and intolerable, and can cause death.37 Coming off too fast may also cause some symptoms to linger for a very long time (as in protracted withdrawal) and can lead to relapse because of their intensity.

Recommended is to do a gentle gradual withdrawal from the drug under medical supervision. Benzodiazepines can cause seizures and even death from suddenly stopping, especially if the person has acclimated to using this medication over a long duration.1,17-19,37

When the time comes to begin the withdrawal process, an inpatient treatment setting that can provide close and careful medical monitoring is strongly recommended.

Klonopin Withdrawal FAQs

Below we have collected pertinent information on clonazepam (Klonopin), and some frequently requested topics related to withdrawal from Klonopin.

What Does Clonazepam Do for Anxiety?

Klonopin can induce a calming sedation and can quickly reduce the intensity of a panic attack or anxiety episode. However, the drug’s effects are temporary and these unwanted symptoms may soon return and even intensify between doses. Benzodiazepines act on GABA receptors, but their exact mechanism is as yet unknown.24

Patients taking Klonopin at night may find that by the morning, the sedating effects may have worn off. For people with daytime anxiety, this can create a rollercoaster effect of between-dosing withdrawal manifestations, similar to antidepressant interdose withdrawals.25 The practitioner may be inclined to include daytime dosing. However, the person with anxiety could quickly find themselves in a spot where they are taking the medication two or three times a day, yet still suffering from symptoms more and more. Benzodiazepines should be taken for the short term only, because of their decreasing efficacy and addictive potential.16-19

Benzodiazepines affect a neurotransmitter called GABA and the effect is a slowing or calming of the CNS. Benzodiazepines should never be mixed with alcohol, opiates, or other CNS depressants as their combined result intensifies side effects markedly and can be life-threatening.

Is Klonopin Stronger Than Xanax?

Both drugs have a similar sedative effect. However, Klonopin has a longer half-life, meaning the drug effect lasts longer than Xanax and would theoretically need to be taken less often than Xanax. Half-life is affected by many factors and is an approximation only. Each person’s physiology is different.

For instance, researchers estimate the elimination half-life of clonazepam or Klonopin to be approximately 30-50 hours.31 The half-life of Xanax© is roughly 12-15 hours, considerably shorter than Klonopin. They are both strong in their sedative effects, and both are susceptible to addiction or dependence.2,14

Because they are both benzodiazepines, they should only be taken for a short time according to published guidelines on benzodiazepine use. Klonopin withdrawal symptoms are quite similar to those caused by Xanax cessation. 

Klonopin vs Xanax: What’s the Difference?

Both drugs belong to the benzodiazepine class, and are anxiolytic in their action. They are both used to treat anxiety and panic disorders, and both should be taken for the short term only as they are easy to get addicted to.

Because of differences in the half-life of these two drugs, Klonopin lasts much longer than Xanax, which is a comparatively shorter-acting medication.

Beyond other minor differences such as pricing, the effects of these two drugs are very similar to one another.

How Long Do Klonopin Withdrawal Symptoms Last?

An individual who wishes to taper off clonazepam how long do symptoms lastKlonopin can expect the process to take some time and should be scheduled properly for a safe and gentle cessation experience. Many people choose inpatient care. Trying to keep working or going to school while at the same time trying to accomplish clonazepam withdrawal would be exhausting, and next to impossible. A much better approach is taking the time to focus on rest and recovery. Never abruptly stop taking Klonopin as prescribed, but seek medical guidance and oversight to help manage a gradual reduction of the dosage over time.

In many studies, clonazepam withdrawal seems to occur in three stages of intensity. The first stage begins with the onset of withdrawals, which is generally considered to start over several days.

From around days 1 to 4, there can begin “rebound symptoms,” such as increased anxiety, worsened depression, or in the case of insomnia, the person can experience rebound insomnia and sleep interruptions, and other discomforts. This early period is called “acute withdrawal” and can be debilitating especially without support and proper care.

These symptoms can last for several weeks or a month or more, and will hopefully begin to subside after some time. This period is generally referred to as “post-acute withdrawal.”

Withdrawal symptoms can, however, last significantly longer, stretching out into many months and even years, especially without proper treatment. During protracted withdrawal, patients report ongoing anxiety and other symptoms very similar to what would be expected during early withdrawal. There is some suspicion that this might be due to damaged receptors, or the ongoing effects of underlying neurotoxic poisoning. These patients are not generally understood well by the medical mainstream and are sometimes subjected to others doubting the validity of their symptoms, which tend to become further pathologized without proper treatment.12 It seems likely in many of these cases that mainstream medicine may need to catch up to real patient experience.1,7,16-20

Special Note Re: Pregnancy and Klonopin (clonazepam)

Women of childbearing age, or who are planning a pregnancy should be informed of the risk of birth defects in infants whose mothers took Klonopin during pregnancy.4 Recommended would be a clonazepam withdrawal program before conceiving a child, even where pregnancy is not planned but possible.

Unique Factors in Clonazepam Withdrawal Programs

It is important to remember that each individual has uniqueness, including environmental, historical, genetic, and other differentiating factors that need to be addressed in any tapering program. No two people are the same, and the above is an estimated timeline that will apply to some but not to others.

Can You Overdose on Clonazepam (Klonopin)?

Yes. Klonopin is a powerful sedative and can be especially dangerous if too much is ingested, or if it is taken concurrently with alcohol, opiates, or any other medications that act as CNS depressants. Tragically, many opiate users also use Klonopin or other benzos concurrently. Approximately one-quarter of opioid overdose deaths also tested positive for benzodiazepines in their systems.5,14,25-27

Signs of clonazepam overdose can include:
  • Unusual or extreme drowsiness
  • Confused or impaired cognitive abilities
  • Lack of coordination, loss of balance
  • Slowed reflexes
  • Slowed or stopped breathing
  • Loss of consciousness or coma
  • Can result in death

Treatment for Clonazepam (Klonopin) Abuse and Dependence

clonazepam withdrawal stabilize neurochemistryPrescription drug dependence is a medical problem, not a moral problem, but patients sometimes end up on the receiving end of criticism for their predicament instead of medical assistance. Compassionate, professional help is key to recovery. At our holistic. medically staffed center, we strive to provide safe and compassionate Klonopin withdrawal, as well as alternative treatments for anxiety or other unwanted conditions where drugs may have proven ineffective, or induced harsh side effects which outweighed any benefits.

One important facet of our clonazepam withdrawal program involves testing for and removing toxins that have accumulated in the body over one’s lifetime. Neurotoxicity is linked to many symptoms and our industrialized environment creates a continual assault on our health through exposure to poisons. The hundreds of thousands of various chemicals that our bodies are forced to deal with are certainly taking a toll on our hormones, neurochemistry, reproductive organs, and other innate physiology vital to our physical survival, and our mental health.3,28

Does Removal of Neurotoxins Aid in Clonazepam Withdrawal?

clonazepam withdrawal holistic treatmentLong-term success is supported by the extraction of excitotoxins. One example of a common excitotoxin is used in pesticides, such as organophosphates. This type of toxic accumulation can affect acetylcholinesterase enzymes, which in turn causes overstimulation of neuronal pathways.3,28

This can be helpful to understand during clonazepam withdrawal, and when addressing neurochemistry in general. Pesticides act on pests by knocking out the pest’s nervous system. There is a possible parallel in human physiology because we also have acetylcholine receptors. Because we have a liver to break down toxins, the impact may be somewhat different in humans than in a pest; however, an individual whose genetics have been compromised may have a similar liability linked to accumulated toxins. Pests react with twitching muscles and other unnatural body motions, not unlike those seen in humans with toxin-laden neurochemistry.

Effects of Food Additives on Neurochemistry

Even relatively common food additives such as MSG© and aspartame have been linked to synaptic over-firing. These chemicals and their derivatives can stimulate receptors such as the NMDA receptor, resulting in neurotoxicity in these receptors.30 In contrast, after neurotoxicity is purged from the system, our clients typically report improvements in sleep, calmer mood, feeling brighter and more energetic, and other positive changes. But that is just the beginning. Authentic wellness is sustainable wellness that does not depend on pharmaceutical drugs. Although the cumulative effects of many environmental toxins are as yet understudied, we do know that certain chemicals and toxic substances have specific detrimental effects on mental health, for example, the onset of Parkinson’s disease is associated with pesticide exposure.3,29

We cannot overstate the importance of neurotoxin removal for improvements in mental health. We have seen the results of this type of natural therapy on thousands of our clients.

Why Consider Inpatient Klonopin Withdrawal?

The two main reasons one may consider Klonopin or clonazepam withdrawal are lack of efficacy and the challenge of side effects. One may find a more prudent approach is to look for other natural means to address the unwanted symptoms that first lead to a prescription of Klonopin. Each person’s situation is highly specific to them and will need the guidance of an experienced and trusted medical team to determine the correct approach. Alternative to Meds Center has developed a wealth of treatment strategies that not only help in reducing the discomfort of clonazepam withdrawal but are designed to give relief to one’s original symptoms, such as anxiety, insomnia, panic attacks, etc., without drugs. Please see our services overview page for a summary of many of the techniques and strategies used in our programs.

Klonopin or clonazepam withdrawal and all it entails might be challenging to one’s family or home life. Many families have opted to seek inpatient care to take the stress off the situation and provide peace of mind for all concerned.

We can help a person navigate clonazepam withdrawal comfortably and safely. Just as importantly, inpatient treatment at Alternative to Meds Center can help you bridge over to alternative therapies that can bring relief of symptoms. Our aim is to help our clients attain natural sustainable mental health. Please ask us for more information on the extraordinarily effective Klonopin withdrawal programs we offer at Alternative to Meds Center, located at the foot of the majestic Red Rock Mountains in beautiful Sedona Arizona.

1. FDA Label Klonopin tablets (clonazepam) [approved 6/4/1975, revised Oct 2017] [cited 2023 May 22]

2. O’brien CP. Benzodiazepine use, abuse, and dependence. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66 Suppl 2:28-33. PMID: 15762817.[cited 2023 May 22]

3. Mattson MP, “Excitotoxins- an overview.” Science Direct [published online, N.D.] [cited 2023 May 22]

4. Almgren M, Källén B, Lavebratt C. Population-based study of antiepileptic drug exposure in utero–influence on head circumference in newborns. Seizure. 2009 Dec;18(10):672-5. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2009.09.002. Epub 2009 Oct 13. PMID: 19828334. [cited 2023 May 22]

5. NIDA/NIH authors,  “Benzodiazepines and Opioids”  [publiished online 2018 Mar 15] [cited 2023 May 22]

6. “Drug Scheduling” U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. [published online, N.D.] [cited 2023 May 22]

7. Pétursson H. The benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. Addiction. 1994 Nov;89(11):1455-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1994.tb03743.x. PMID: 7841856.[cited 2023 May 22]

8. Brett J, Murnion B. Management of benzodiazepine misuse and dependenceAust Prescr. 2015;38(5):152-155. doi:10.18773/austprescr.2015.055 [cited 2023 May 22]

9. Lader M. Benzodiazepine harm: how can it be reduced? Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Feb;77(2):295-301. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04418.x. PMID: 22882333; PMCID: PMC4014015. [cited 2023 May 22]

10. Chouinard G. Issues in the clinical use of benzodiazepines: potency, withdrawal, and rebound. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65 Suppl 5:7-12. PMID: 15078112. [cited 2023 May 22]

11. Nelson J, Chouinard G. Guidelines for the clinical use of benzodiazepines: pharmacokinetics, dependency, rebound and withdrawal. Canadian Society for Clinical Pharmacology. Can J Clin Pharmacol. 1999 Summer;6(2):69-83. PMID: 10519733. [cited 2023 May 22]

12. Pimlott NJ, Hux JE, Wilson LM, Kahan M, Li C, Rosser WW. Educating physicians to reduce benzodiazepine use by elderly patients: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ. 2003 Apr 1;168(7):835-9. PMID: 12668540; PMCID: PMC151988. [cited 2023 May 22]

13. FDA Drug Information: Benzodiazepines [published online Sept 23 2020] [cited 2023 May 22]

14. FDA label Xanax (revised 20160 [cited 2023 May 22]

15. DEA Fact Sheet, “Benzodiazepines: Street Names” [online] December 2019 [cited 2023 May 22]

16. Dept. Consumer Protection, “Clonazepam” fact sheet [online] N.D. [cited 2022 June 8]

17. Ashton H. Guidelines for the rational use of benzodiazepines. When and what to use. Drugs. 1994 Jul;48(1):25-40. doi: 10.2165/00003495-199448010-00004. PMID: 7525193. [cited 2023 May 22]

18. Lader M. Short-term versus long-term benzodiazepine therapy. Curr Med Res Opin. 1984;8 Suppl 4:120-6. doi: 10.1185/03007998409109550. PMID: 6144459. [cited 2023 May 22]

19. Ashton, H, “The Ashton Manual” [ published online] [cited 2023 May 22]

20. Laskey C, Opitz B. Tinnitus associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome: A case report and literature reviewMent Health Clin. 2020;10(3):100-103. Published 2020 May 7. doi:10.9740/mhc.2020.05.100[cited 2023 May 22]

21. Bounds CG, Nelson VL. Benzodiazepines. [Updated 2020 Nov 22]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan. Available from:[cited 2023 May 22]

22. Tapiainen V, Taipale H, Tanskanen A, Tiihonen J, Hartikainen S, Tolppanen AM. The risk of Alzheimer’s disease associated with benzodiazepines and related drugs: a nested case-control study. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2018 Aug;138(2):91-100. doi: 10.1111/acps.12909. Epub 2018 May 31. PMID: 29851063. [cited 2023 May 22]

23. Rajamaki B, Hartikainen S, Tolppanen AM. Psychotropic Drug-Associated Pneumonia in Older Adults. Drugs Aging. 2020 Apr;37(4):241-261. doi: 10.1007/s40266-020-00754-1. PMID: 32107741; PMCID: PMC7096389. [cited 2023 May 22]

24. Haefely W. Benzodiazepine interactions with GABA receptors. Neurosci Lett. 1984 Jun 29;47(3):201-6. doi: 10.1016/0304-3940(84)90514-7. PMID: 6147796. [cited 2023 May 22]

25. Petit J, Sansone RA. A case of interdose discontinuation symptoms with venlafaxine extended release. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2011;13(5):PCC.11l01140. doi:10.4088/PCC.11l01140 [cited 2023 May 22]

26. NIH, “Benzodiazepines and Opioids” [information letter published online] [cited 2023 May 22]

27. Welch TR, Rumack BH, Hammond K. Clonazepam overdose resulting in cyclic coma. Clin Toxicol. 1977;10(4):433-6. doi: 10.3109/15563657709046280. PMID: 862377. [cited 2023 May 22]

28. Brown JS Jr. Psychiatric issues in toxic exposures. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2007 Dec;30(4):837-54. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2007.07.004. PMID: 17938048. [cited 2023 May 22]

29. Costa LG, Giordano G, Guizzetti M, Vitalone A. Neurotoxicity of pesticides: a brief review. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:1240-9. doi: 10.2741/2758. PMID: 17981626.[cited 2023 May 22]

30. Choudhary AK, Lee YY. Neurophysiological symptoms and aspartame: What is the connection? Nutr Neurosci. 2018 Jun;21(5):306-316. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2017.1288340. Epub 2017 Feb 15. PMID: 28198207. [cited 2023 May 22]

31. Basit H, Kahwaji CI. Clonazepam. [Updated 2021 Dec 29]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: [cited 2023 May 22]

32. Alicja Lerner, Michael Klein, Dependence, withdrawal and rebound of CNS drugs: an update and regulatory considerations for new drugs developmentBrain Communications, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2019, fcz025 [cited 2023 May 22]

33. Dokkedal-Silva V, Berro LF, Galduróz JCF, Tufik S, Andersen ML. Clonazepam: Indications, Side Effects, and Potential for Nonmedical Use. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2019 Sep/Oct;27(5):279-289. doi: 10.1097/HRP.0000000000000227. PMID: 31385811.[cited 2023 May 22]

34. Balaram K, Marwaha R. Agoraphobia. 2022 Jun 7. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan–. PMID: 32119274. [cited 2023 May 22]

35. Citkowska-Kisielewska A, Rutkowski K, Sobański JA, Dembińska E, Mielimąka M. Anxiety symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Psychiatr Pol. 2019 Aug 31;53(4):845-864. English, Polish. doi: 10.12740/PP/105378. Epub 2019 Aug 31. PMID: 31760413. [cited 2023 May 22]

36. Roche Product Monograph Rivotril (clonazepam) [approval revised July 5, 2021] [cited 2023 May 22]

Originally Published Sep 13, 2018 by Diane Ridaeus

This content has been reviewed and approved by a licensed physician.

Dr. Michael Loes, M.D.


Dr. Michael Loes is board-certified in Internal Medicine, Pain Management and Addiction Medicine. He holds a dual license in Homeopathic and Integrative Medicine. He obtained his medical doctorate at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 1978. Dr. Loes performed an externship at the National Institute of Health for Psychopharmacology. Additionally, he is a well-published author including Arthritis: The Doctor’s Cure, The Aspirin Alternative, The Healing Response, and Spirit Driven Health: The Psalmist’s Guide for Recovery. He has been awarded the Minnesota Medical Foundation’s “Excellence in Research” Award.

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