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Xanax Withdrawal Symptoms

The following list of Xanax withdrawal symptoms comes from both independent and drug manufacturers’ research, and may not be a complete list due to gaps in reporting between clinical and non-clinical settings.1,4,8,30,31

Xanax withdrawal symptoms include the following:
  • Seizure, grand mal seizures
  • Psychosis
  • Drug cravings (physiological dependence, addiction)
  • Anxiety, panic attacks
  • Heart palpitations
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Cognitive impairment
  • Rebound insomnia
  • Muscle pain, cramping, weakness in the muscles, stiffness
  • Dizziness, vertigo
  • Nausea, vomiting, dry-retching
  • Headache
  • Mood changes, depression, crying spells
  • Memory lapses

If you have experienced other withdrawal symptoms not listed here, you are invited to make a voluntary medical report online to FDA’s Medwatch site, that may be useful to others in the future.

WARNING: Never stop using benzodiazepine drugs suddenly. Withdrawals can be eased by gradually tapering down instead of stopping all at once, especially for rapidly acting benzodiazepines such as Xanax.6,7-10

Xanax withdrawal is best achieved slowly and gradually, with adequate support in place. Unfortunately, detox facilities using a short timeline for treatment may miss the mark, which may make the process more difficult than necessary, with more discomfort than any patient would want.

Xanax withdrawal symptoms can be harsh, extremely difficult for some, and cannot be handled like other types of drug withdrawal. The strategy for eliminating benzodiazepines needs to be precise,  and very gradual. Find out more about effective holistic support for the process.

Do Your Symptoms Require Xanax?

xanax withdrawal
Alternative to Meds has been the expert on benzodiazepine withdrawal for over 17 years. We have published evidence regarding our success. While some CAN transition from benzodiazepines rather easily, many people will require a much more nuanced path back to a state of ease. For instance, many are neurotoxic, resulting in constant fight or flight (sympathetic overdrive) which is difficult to endure. That neurotoxic burden would need to get cleaned up so that the withdrawal is even possible. Truly, every person is different and needs a thorough investigative and step-by-step process.
You are likely well aware of the horrors of Xanax. The anxiety, the increasing doses, the life of true confusion, and panic. Trying to live life on benzos can be punishing, and getting off of them seems impossible. We know. That was us.
Please watch the videos you see here or call us to get hope about your situation.

Watch as our founder, Lyle Murphy, discusses some of the most popular questions regarding Xanax withdrawal and how to mitigate harsh Xanax withdrawal symptoms. Topics include neuroadaptation, a pragmatic approach to cross-tapering, drug-free interventions for panic attacks, and the importance of diet modification and clearing out neurotoxins for a full recovery. We hope you find the following information helpful on your journey to natural mental health. Enjoy!
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Does Xanax Withdrawal Cause Rebound Anxiety?

Studies show that Xanax withdrawal symptoms include a uniquely concerning profile of rebound anxiety compared to other benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromes. One study published in the 2018 Journal of Addiction Medicine showed after a 4-week taper, 15 out of 17 participants who had been treated with Xanax for panic disorder experienced increased panic attacks, and 9 of the 17 also experienced newly emerging withdrawal symptoms like insomnia, malaise, dizziness, and tachycardia (racing heart rate at rest).25

Another study published in the 1990 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry followed its participants who were diagnosed with combat-induced PTSD and were being treated with Xanax. Subsequent to an 8-week long Xanax withdrawal, all 8 reported worsening anxiety, rage reactions, hypersensitivity, intrusive thoughts, newly emerging insomnia, sleep disturbances, and nightmares. Of significant concern, 6 of the 8 participants in the study experienced homicidal ideation. During or post Xanax withdrawal, 4 of the 8 experienced suicidal ideation, and 7 of the 8 reported increased irritability and other undesirable side effects persisting after the 8-week Xanax withdrawal process.29 According to the aforementioned study published in the Journal of Addiction Medicine in 2018, delirium and psychosis are more frequently reported Xanax withdrawal symptoms compared to other benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromes, although the study notes that similar studies of other benzodiazepines are scant.25

The 1987 American Journal of Psychiatry reported that only 4 of 17 participants in a Xanax withdrawal study could complete their withdrawal as scheduled, that is within 4-5 weeks, and only 4 more could complete it within 7 to 13 weeks. Of the 17 participants, 15 experienced increased panic symptoms, and 9 participants reported newly-emerging withdrawal symptoms such as weakness, insomnia, malaise, lightheadedness, tachycardia, and others.27

A study published in Archives of General Psychiatry compared 60 participants taking Xanax for 8 weeks, and the same number taking a placebo. After a 4-week withdrawal, the medication group experienced increased anxiety and recurring panic attacks whereas the placebo group did not. The study recommends patients being treated for panic disorder with Xanax be withdrawn over at least an 8-week period.26

What is Xanax?

Xanax is a tranquilizer in the benzodiazepine drug class, FDA-approved to be used as a sedative to treat anxiety and panic disorders.1 It comes in immediate or delayed-release versions. Benzodiazepines are often prescribed longer than is recommended by health authorities, putting consumers at risk of dependence and addiction. According to the Heather Ashton guidelines, benzodiazepines should be taken for a few days to a few weeks. These guidelines also suggest that Xanax withdrawal need not be traumatic if done correctly and with individual support care in place.2

Information is provided below, on the most frequently requested topics concerning Xanax and Xanax withdrawal. Always do your best to research before starting or stopping Xanax or other medications.

What is Xanax (alprazolam) Used for?

Xanax is a central nervous system suppressant and is primarily prescribed to treat anxiety or panic disorders. If you suffer from anxiety and/or panic attacks, there are studies showing how methods of controlled breathing, exercise, yoga, and other nonpharmacological interventions can be highly effective, for example, turning off a panic attack or reducing their frequency without drugs.35,36

CAUTION:  Just as you would not drink and drive, Xanax’s dampening effects on alertness and cognitive function make driving or operating machinery inadvisable while under the influence of Xanax.

Xanax Alternative Names and Slang

Xanax is a brand or trade name for the generic drug, alprazolam. Other brand names in the US include Gabazolamine-05 and Niravam.

Xanax has developed a presence as a street drug that can be purchased for as little as $5 a pill. Its popularity is possibly due to its sedative effects and pleasurable sensation of mild euphoria. According to the Connecticut Department of Consumer Protection, numerous street names have evolved, including bricks, footballs, bars, zanbars, and others.3

FDA Recommendations for Xanax Withdrawal

Quitting Xanax or any benzodiazepine drug abruptly can be deadly. A gradual taper is the FDA’s recommended approach to lessen these severe and potentially life-threatening Xanax withdrawal symptoms. Several factors can affect the timeline of your withdrawal including how long you used Xanax, how high the dosage, general health, age, and even some genetic factors that may affect the rate of clearing from the body. Xanax has an extremely short half-life, which makes a smooth withdrawal nearly impossible. A recommended strategy to discuss with your prescribing caregiver is to transition over to a longer-acting benzodiazepine such as Valium© that may allow a less problematic withdrawal schedule. We invite you to read more about options for Xanax withdrawal used at Alternative to Meds Center, including cross-tapering methods and others. Always seek professional guidance or inpatient care for your best outcome.2,6-10

Xanax Side Effects

A side effect is a “secondary” effect, typically undesirable, as opposed to the beneficial effects of a drug. The FDA requires that a drug must have more benefits than safety concerns to be sold in the US. Side effects occur most often when starting or stopping a drug, or when increasing or decreasing the dosage of a drug.4

xanax side effects

Xanax can cause mild as well as more serious side effects. According to statistics compiled by the US Gov., Xanax side effects range from mild to severe, in some cases, life-threatening.5 The list is long, so we have grouped these adverse effects into categories for clarity.

IMPORTANT NOTE:  Xanax withdrawal symptoms and Xanax side effects have many similarities which may cause some physicians unfamiliar with Xanax withdrawals and side effects to misdiagnose the ups and downs of Xanax withdrawals. An incorrect diagnosis may be given, either thinking the patient has relapsed, or some newly emerging mental disorder has occurred, leading to further errors and complications in treatment.34

Xanax side effects may include:

Nervous System disorders:  Akathisia, insomnia, abnormal involuntary movements, twitching, impaired coordination, muscle tone disorders, weakness, lightheadedness, dizziness, menstrual difficulties, infrequent or stopped menstrual periods, infertility, blurry vision.

Gastrointestinal disorders:  Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, dry mouth, increased salivation.

Cardiovascular disorders:  tachycardia, hypotension

Dermatological: skin, & subcutaneous tissue disorders:  Stevens-Johnson syndrome, rash, sweating, photosensitivity.

Psychiatric disorders:  emotional blunting,6 mania, hypomania, anxiety, irritability, memory impairment, derealization, depression, confusion, decreased/increased libido, disinhibition, dysarthria (difficulty in articulating speech), fatigue, sexual dysfunction, infertility.

Metabolism disorders:  Weight loss, weight gain, increased/decreased appetite.

Special Notes on Pregnancy:  Use in pregnancy is associated with depressed respiration and withdrawal symptoms post-birth in the infant. Infant Xanax withdrawals include irritability, restlessness, tremors, hyperreflexia (overactive reflex response), inconsolable crying, and feeding difficulties. A study out of Sweden in 1989 reported 8 infants suffering from impairment of vitality at birth, signs of mental retardation, and other severe problems where benzodiazepines were regularly used by the mother during pregnancy.28

There are several safety warnings on Xanax packaging. These are:

  1. Xanax combined with opioids can produce profound sedation, suppressed respiration, coma & death.
  2. Xanax use carries a high risk of abuse and addiction.
  3. Because of the risk of dependence after continued use, and due to the very short half-life7 of alprazolam, sudden Xanax withdrawal should not be attempted due to the risk of acute withdrawals which can be severely uncomfortable, and potentially life-threatening.
  4. Driving or operating heavy machinery is not recommended due to side effects of drowsiness, confusion, blurry vision, and others.

Xanax Withdrawal FAQs

Below are some of the most frequently asked topics about Xanax withdrawal, including safety, health risks, mechanism of action in the brain, and other important subjects of interest. It is recommended that a person learn as much as possible about a drug before starting or stopping a prescription.

How Does Xanax (alprazolam) Work?

The mechanics of action of benzodiazepines is not completely understood. Drug lab and other research projects show that benzodiazepine drugs likely activate GABA, a naturally occurring neurotransmitter, which has a sedating or inhibitory effect on the central nervous system.

Using Xanax or other benzodiazepines for longer than the recommended 2 to 4 weeks is common despite the warnings from drug regulators. Long-term use can exacerbate anxiety and other side effects rather than control or reduce unwanted symptoms. Xanax withdrawals also include increased anxiety and other unwanted symptoms. This worsened anxiety may be a significant driver for patients continuing to take Xanax for much longer than the recommended short-term time frame, becoming more and more desperate as their symptoms spiral out of control 24

Xanax alters how natural brain chemicals work. After a short time, the body can become used to these effects and will need some time and careful tapering for readjusting to reduced doses. If not done correctly, cravings and heightened desire for the drug can lead to continued usage and addiction.11

Can You Overdose on Xanax?

Yes. Benzodiazepines are significantly linked to overdose deaths. This is especially documented where benzodiazepines were taken in combination with other CNS depressants such as opiates or alcohol; even histamines obtained over the counter can severely react with Xanax, requiring immediate emergency intervention to prevent coma or death.12

Symptoms of Xanax overdose include slowed breathing, slow heart rate, blue color in the lips or face, confusion, weakness or loss of muscle control, slurred speech, loss of consciousness, and death.

How Addictive are Benzodiazepine Drugs?

Xanax has a high risk for dependence and addiction, especially when taken for more than several weeks.13

After dependence or addiction sets in, abruptly Xanax withdrawal can produce severe withdrawal symptoms, sometimes deadly in their effect.

As with all short-acting sleep aids, by the morning their sedating effects will have worn off. One of the considering factors regarding Xanax is that it is short-acting. If someone takes Xanax at night, it can be that by morning they are no longer feeling the sedating effects, and, in addition, the person may be troubled by daytime anxiety. Daytime interdosing to mitigate these manifestations may be initiated by the prescribing doctor, whereupon the patient may find they are taking the medication 3 or more times each day as well as at night, but with no resolution in sight to these symptoms.

Always seek competent medical guidance and advice when it comes to the time that stopping Xanax is desired.

Are Benzodiazepines Controlled Substances?

Yes. All benzodiazepines are Schedule IV drugs. These drugs have a risk of dependence and addiction, and they also have valid uses in treating certain medical or psychiatric conditions.14

How Long Does Xanax Stay in Your System?

Xanax is a relative short-acting benzodiazepine compared to other drugs in this class. However, urine tests will show the drug present for up to 7 days after taking Xanax.15 Saliva tests will test positive for between 2 and 3 days, and a blood test will be reliably read up to about 6 days.

Xanax, or generic alprazolam, has a half-life of approximately 12 hours, with many factors that can shorten or lengthen that time frame, including liver health, age, diet, and certain genetic factors affecting metabolization. These factors must be well-considered during Xanax withdrawal.

Can Xanax Damage the Liver or Kidneys?

Xanax warnings issued by the FDA on the drug label state that those with impaired renal or hepatic function should avoid taking Xanax or any product containing alprazolam. These impairments can cause the drug to build up in the system excessively, due to the inability of the drug to be broken down or metabolized quickly.2,5

In general, the toxic impairments attributed to benzodiazepines increase over the length of usage, and may slowly reverse after stopping, although some damages appear to be permanent.33

Discuss any known kidney or liver damage with your prescribing physician and ensure these issues are medically monitored before starting a prescription of Xanax, or embarking on Xanax withdrawal, or other medications.

What are Benzodiazepine Alternatives?

Xanax alternative medicine includes the use of natural remedies that can be selected from a broad range of different types of herbs, vitamins, nutrients, minerals, and supplements. While no one should ever abruptly discontinue Xanax or other similar medications, alternatives can help ease the reactions that can occur even during very careful and slow Xanax discontinuation. The most effective Xanax alternatives include psychological counseling 17-19 (CBT has been proven especially helpful by researchers for easing Xanax withdrawal), neurotoxin removal, nutritional therapy, IV + NAD treatments, supplementation, herbal remedies, minerals, vitamins, and natural substances to restore and rehabilitate natural brain chemistry are among the Xanax withdrawal treatments available at Alternative to Meds Center.

Learn More about Xanax Alternatives

Can alprazolam cause dementia or memory problems?

xanax withdrawal and memory problemsIt is not known definitively what causes dementia but environmental factors including lifestyle as well as genetics are considered as possible contributors. This is a condition primarily seen in elderly populations, but younger-onset dementia also occurs rarely. Symptoms of dementia include cognitive impairment, memory loss, confusion, and personality changes. There is some consideration that heredity may play a part in this disorder.

Since Xanax can also cause similar symptoms and is regularly prescribed to this age group, it is unclear whether Xanax causes dementia or whether it causes a similar set of symptoms that may be unrelated to genetics and heredity.20

Xanax can cause amnesia and retrograde amnesia, and these side effects may pass after Xanax withdrawal, though it may take considerable time.3,4

Treatment for Benzodiazepine Abuse and Addiction?

At Alternative to Meds Center, we specialize in safe Xanax withdrawal treatments. Another pillar of treatment of equal or even greater importance is to provide the testing and therapies that can relieve symptoms for which prescription drugs may have been prescribed in the first place.

The FDA recommends that for day-to-day stress or tension, such as workplace stress, family discord, or other challenges, benzodiazepines should not casually be prescribed in these cases.2

However, it is known that as of The Top 300 Drug Stats Report for 2021, Xanax ranked at #37 of the top 300 most prescribed drugs in the US. More Xanax prescriptions were written than for Oxycodone, hydromorphone (Dilaudid) and Penicillin combined.21 Deaths due to benzodiazepines rose from 1000 per year in 1999 to roughly 9,000 per year in 2019. Also of concern, one-third of benzodiazepine prescriptions were accompanied by prescriptions for opioid medications, a potentially lethal combination. Tragically, 85% of benzodiazepine overdose deaths involved opioids. And despite recommendations for short-term use only, the CDC reports that many of these prescriptions have gone on long-term.21,22

Xanax withdrawal will likely need to be more carefully monitored after long-term use. Xanax addiction and Xanax dependence can occur whether one was pleasure-seeking or just seeking relief. These factors make a perfect storm for long-term drug injuries.

xanax testingA particularly popular aspect of the Alternative to Meds program is investigative lab testing to detect accumulated toxins and facilitate their removal from the body. It is true that some symptoms like anxiety and insomnia could be related to neurotoxicity, especially troublesome in our industrialized world. Environmental medicine informs us that pollutants, including pesticides, food additives, and heavy metals, do have the capacity to damage and interfere with normal healthy hormones, reproductive systems, neurochemistry, and innumerable parts of the complex body. These substances have been overlooked in mainstream mental health treatment.23 Alternative to Meds Center has observed that clearing these toxins from the body is a positive and in many cases necessary step toward restoring natural mental health improvements and long-term success.

Safe tapering is another specialty at Alternative to Meds Center. We can help those who have found limited or no success in drug-based treatments or failed attempts at discontinuing Xanax, and who wish to discontinue Xanax in a comfortable, safe, and gradual manner and also find relief from original symptoms, as well as those induced by benzodiazepine use or improper Xanax withdrawal in the past.

We invite you to contact us at Alternative to Meds Center for further information on gradual and comfortable Xanax withdrawal, especially if you are struggling with Xanax addiction or dependence issues, and you are looking for holistic answers using safe, alternative mental health treatments.

1. FDA drug label Xanax (alprazolam tablets) Revised 2016 [cited 2022 May 24]

2. Ashton H. The diagnosis and management of benzodiazepine dependence. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2005 May;18(3):249-55. doi: 10.1097/01.yco.0000165594.60434.84. PMID:16639148. [cited 2022 May 24]

3. Connecticut Gvt. Department of Consumer Protection Information “Aprazolam” [cited 2022 May 24]

4. FDA information, “Finding and Learning About Side Effects (adverse reactions).” 2018 July 19 [cited 2022 May 24]

5. DailyMed prescription drug information, “Alprazolam” [online] Mar 21, 2021 [cited 2022 May 24]

6. Ashton H, “Benzodiazepines – How they Work and How to Withdraw” aka “The Ashton Manual” revised Aug 2002 [online] [cited 2022 May 24]

7. Garzone PD, Kroboth PD. Pharmacokinetics of the newer benzodiazepines. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jun;16(6):337-64. doi: 10.2165/00003088-198916060-00002. PMID: 2567646. [cited 2022 May 24]

8. Browne JL, Hauge KJ. A review of alprazolam withdrawal. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1986 Nov;20(11):837-41. doi: 10.1177/106002808602001102. PMID: 3536383. [cited 2022 May 24]

9. Bosshart H. Withdrawal-induced delirium associated with a benzodiazepine switch: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2011 May 26;5:207. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-5-207. PMID: 21615891; PMCID: PMC3117827. [cited 2022 May 24]

10. Busto U, Sellers EM, Naranjo CA, Cappell H, Sanchez-Craig M, Sykora K. Withdrawal reaction after long-term therapeutic use of benzodiazepines. N Engl J Med. 1986 Oct 2;315(14):854-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198610023151403. PMID: 3092053. [cited 2022 May 24]

11. O’brien CP. Benzodiazepine use, abuse, and dependence. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66 Suppl 2:28-33. PMID: 15762817. [cited 2022 May 24]

12. Kang M, Galuska MA, Ghassemzadeh S. Benzodiazepine Toxicity. [Updated 2021 Jul 1]. In: StatPearls Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: [cited 2022 May 24]

13. Ananth J. Benzodiazepines: selective use to avoid addiction. Postgrad Med. 1982 Oct;72(4):271-6. doi: 10.1080/00325481.1982.11716231. PMID: 6126869. [cited 2022 May 24]

14. Schmitz A. Benzodiazepine use, misuse, and abuse: A reviewMent Health Clin. 2016;6(3):120-126. Published 2016 May 6. doi:10.9740/mhc.2016.05.120 [cited 2022 May 24]

15. Temte V, Kjeldstadli K, Bruun LD, Birdal M, Bachs L, Karinen R, Middelkoop G, Øiestad E, Høiseth G. An Experimental Study of Diazepam and Alprazolam Kinetics in Urine and Oral Fluid Following Single Oral Doses. J Anal Toxicol. 2019 Mar 1;43(2):104-111. doi: 10.1093/jat/bky062. PMID: 30517712. [cited 2022 May 24]

16. Santo L, Rui P, Ashman J, “Physician Office Visits at which Benzodiazepines were Prescribed: Findings from 2014-2016 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey” CDC national Health Statistics Reports #137 January 17,2020 [cited 2022 May 24]

17. Otte C. Cognitive behavioral therapy in anxiety disorders: current state of the evidence. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2011;13(4):413-421. doi:10.31887/DCNS.2011.13.4/cotte [cited 2022 May 24]

18. DeRubeis RJ, Siegle GJ, Hollon SD. Cognitive therapy versus medication for depression: treatment outcomes and neural mechanismsNat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9(10):788-796. doi:10.1038/nrn2345 [cited 2022 May 24]

19. Otto MW, McHugh RK, Simon NM, Farach FJ, Worthington JJ, Pollack MH. Efficacy of CBT for benzodiazepine discontinuation in patients with panic disorder: Further evaluation. Behav Res Ther. 2010 Aug;48(8):720-7. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.04.002. Epub 2010 Apr 28. PMID: 20546699; PMCID: PMC5962448. [cited 2022 May 24]

20. He Q, Chen X, Wu T, Li L, Fei X. Risk of Dementia in Long-Term Benzodiazepine Users: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of Observational StudiesJ Clin Neurol. 2019;15(1):9-19. doi:10.3988/jcn.2019.15.1.9 [cited 2022 May 24]

21. Statistical Report “The Top 300 of 2021” published online by clincalc database [cited 2022 May 24]

22. CDC statistics report, “Overdose Death Rates, figure 8” [cited 2022 May 24]

23. Genuis SJ. Toxic causes of mental illness are overlooked. Neurotoxicology. 2008 Nov;29(6):1147-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2008.06.005. Epub 2008 Jun 24. PMID: 18621076. [cited 2022 May 24]

24. Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment. Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review Stockholm: Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment (SBU); 2005 Nov. SBU Yellow Report No. 171/1+2. PMID: 28876726. [cited 2022 May 24]

25. Ait-Daoud N, Hamby AS, Sharma S, Blevins D. A Review of Alprazolam Use, Misuse, and WithdrawalJ Addict Med. 2018;12(1):4-10. doi:10.1097/ADM.0000000000000350 [cited 2022 May 24]

26. Pecknold JC, Swinson RP, Kuch K, Lewis CP. Alprazolam in panic disorder and agoraphobia: results from a multicenter trial. III. Discontinuation effects. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988 May;45(5):429-36. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1988.01800290043006. PMID: 3282479. [cited 2022 May 24]

27. Fyer AJ, Liebowitz MR, Gorman JM, Campeas R, Levin A, Davies SO, Goetz D, Klein DF. Discontinuation of alprazolam treatment in panic patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1987 Mar;144(3):303-8. doi: 10.1176/ajp.144.3.303. PMID: 3826428. [cited 2022 May 24]

28. Laegreid L, Olegård R, Walström J, Conradi N. Teratogenic effects of benzodiazepine use during pregnancy. J Pediatr. 1989 Jan;114(1):126-31. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3476(89)80619-5. PMID: 2562851.[cited 2022 May 24]

29. Risse SC, Whitters A, Burke J, Chen S, Scurfield RM, Raskind MA. Severe withdrawal symptoms after discontinuation of alprazolam in eight patients with combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990 May;51(5):206-9. PMID: 2335496. [cited 2022 May 24]

30. Pétursson H. The benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. Addiction. 1994 Nov;89(11):1455-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1994.tb03743.x. PMID: 7841856. [cited 2022 May 24]

31. Goffinet S. Mécanisme d’action, indications et abus des benzodiazépines anxiolytiques [Mechanism of action, indications and abuse of benzodiazepine anxiolytic drugs]. Ann Med Psychol (Paris). 1993 Jan;151(1):47-63. French. PMID: 7905724. [cited 2022 May 24]

32. Lader M. Long-term anxiolytic therapy: the issue of drug withdrawal. J Clin Psychiatry. 1987 Dec;48 Suppl:12-6. PMID: 2891684. [cited 2022 May 24]

33. Peart R, Toxicity, Cognitive Impairment, Long Term Damage, and The Post Withdrawal Syndrome [published online December 2000] [cited 2022 May 24]

34. Perlis RH. Misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder. Am J Manag Care. 2005 Oct;11(9 Suppl):S271-4. PMID: 16232009. [cited 2022 May 24]

35. Boyadzhieva A, Kayhan E. Keeping the Breath in Mind: Respiration, Neural Oscillations, and the Free Energy Principle. Front Neurosci. 2021 Jun 29;15:647579. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2021.647579. PMID: 34267621; PMCID: PMC8275985. [cited 2022 May 27]

36. Saeed SA, Cunningham K, Bloch RM. Depression and Anxiety Disorders: Benefits of Exercise, Yoga, and Meditation. Am Fam Physician. 2019 May 15;99(10):620-627. PMID: 31083878. [cited 2022 may 27]

Originally Published Sep 13, 2018 by Diane Ridaeus

This content has been reviewed and approved by a licensed physician.

Dr. Michael Loes, M.D.


Dr. Michael Loes is board-certified in Internal Medicine, Pain Management and Addiction Medicine. He holds a dual license in Homeopathic and Integrative Medicine. He obtained his medical doctorate at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 1978. Dr. Loes performed an externship at the National Institute of Health for Psychopharmacology. Additionally, he is a well-published author including Arthritis: The Doctor’s Cure, The Aspirin Alternative, The Healing Response, and Spirit Driven Health: The Psalmist’s Guide for Recovery. He has been awarded the Minnesota Medical Foundation’s “Excellence in Research” Award.

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