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Ativan Alternatives

This entry was posted in Benzodiazepine and tagged on by .
Medically Reviewed Fact Checked

Last Updated on October 17, 2023 by Carol Gillette

Alternative to Meds Editorial Team
Medically Reviewed by Dr Samuel Lee MD

Ativan alternatives can provide a safe route to becoming medication-free and finding relief from symptoms without relying on prescription drugs. We are a residential facility that focuses on this challenging patient population to provide the integration of both medical and holistic help to make this transition possible.

Ativan withdrawal, like all benzodiazepines, must be treated strategically, exactly, and compassionately. Much suffering can occur during withdrawal when it is not adequately supported. Making the transition from Ativan addiction or dependence to holistic and natural Ativan alternatives is our specialty.

Do Your Symptoms Require Ativan?
successful ativan alternatives
Alternative to Meds has been the expert on benzodiazepine alternatives including Ativan alternative treatment for over 15 years. We invite you to review our published evidence regarding our success. Some people can indeed slide off of benzodiazepines easier than others. Some persons are neurotoxic, forcing them into fight or flight (sympathetic system overdrive), and need to clean up that toxic burden before they can regulate. Each person is different and needs to be treated as such.
This video is of a woman who successfully tapered off of benzodiazepines and antidepressants. Like many, she thought her life was over. Little did she realize that in many ways her life was beginning again. This video should certainly give you hope for your situation.
15 Years Experience by Professionals Who Understand Your Journey.
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Why Choose Ativan Alternatives?

Ativan, like most psychotropic medications, treats symptoms, not root causes. People taking Ativan for a significant period of time often encounter chemical dependency, tolerance, and a structurally altered nervous system. Their doctor or psychiatrist typically increases their dose to help manage these problems, but the situation likely repeats or even worsens. This vicious cycle gets more arduous the longer it goes on. There are effective Ativan alternative treatments, with the most successful being the identification and correction of the real underlying causes of anxiety and other troubling symptoms. Alternative medicine has expanded over the past decades, due to its effective and safe options, while the prescription drug model of treatment has become scrutinized more and more for failing to keep promises, and for failing to be completely honest about its benefit-to-harm ratios.87

Protracted Ativan Withdrawal

The medical community owes a great debt of gratitude to Heather Ashton for her brilliant work to document the very real struggles concerning protracted withdrawal for people coming off of benzos. According to Ashton, the fact that withdrawal symptoms can go on for such a very long time suggests that neuronal damage could have occurred.9

WARNING:  When Ativan tapering is handled improperly, serious effects can occur including severe depression, anxiousness, physical pain, intense cravings, insomnia, nausea, and overall discomfort. Ativan is one of the most frequent types of medication we address and we provide healthier safer Ativan alternative treatments.

Natural Alternatives to Ativan

Overcoming anxiety disorders may feel a lot like trying to stop a runaway train — out of control and with no working brakes! Alternative Ativan therapies can help transition not only to lesser severity of symptoms but can help transition to non-pharmacological solutions that are safe and effective. Whether a person suffers from panic disorder, general or social anxiety, or PTSD, it probably matters less what name you call it — what matters more is that there are solutions to your distress.1,16

Natural Ativan Alternatives include:
  • natural alternatives to benzosChoose foods that are chemical and pesticide-free 66
  • Choose chemical-free body care products 51,52,89-91
  • Probiotics, fermented foods = healthy gut microbiome = reduced anxiety 3,6,62,63
  • Avoid MSG, Aspartame© 23,50,64,65
  • Orthomolecular-based diet 24,37,69
  • Clean out accumulated toxins from the body 7,25-27,92
  • Relaxation aids — aromatherapy, music therapy, massage 28,57
  • Regular sessions of acupuncture 29,30
  • Herbal remedies for relaxation and sleep (passionflower, kava, valerian) 31,32,60,75
  • GABA — an inhibitory neurotransmitter available in supplement form 33,54
  • Taurine — an inhibitory amino acid – ameliorates psychiatric symptoms 34,35,56,58
  • Glycine — a proteinogenic amino acid helpful for insomnia 36
  • L-lysine, L-arginine, L-theanine (for anxiety relief) 38,71
  • Remedy deficiencies such as magnesium, vitamins B, C, D 39,84,85,86
  • CBD (medical marijuana) 40
  • Melatonin before retiring, omega-three fatty acids for natural melatonin production 41
  • Tryptophan, 5-HTP can help with depression 42,43,45
  • Eliminate toxic mold in the places you spend most of your time 19-22
  • Block or remove sources of EMFs, WiFi, blue light 17,18
  • Get more daytime light in your life (sunlight or bright artificial light) 61
  • Acupressure for better sleep 61
  • Psychotherapy such as CBT or other counseling is another proven effective alternative to Ativan. 4,16

Diet — Effective Ativan Alternative

Digestive issues such as slow digestion, leaky gut, and IBS are prominently associated with anxiety and panic disorders. The issues affecting digestion don’t necessarily start in your stomach — they can start from the spine, from the intestinal tract, or from anywhere along the CNS. The same neurotransmitters that alter your mood, such as serotonin, play a role in sending signals to your gut — those signals travel down a two-way street, back and forth between the gut and the brain. Supporting gut health with fermented foods, probiotics, and clean food without chemicals or preservatives is of prime importance while addressing issues like mood, anxiety, panic attacks, depression, and many other unwanted symptoms.3

Organic food

Organic food tastes better, that is no great surprise to most. But did you know that by choosing pesticide and additive-free foods, you can avoid literally thousands of toxic chemicals? This is a highly validated alternative to Ativan for improved mental wellness. Toxins are basically poisons, and they can negatively impact our neurochemistry as well as many other areas of health. Eating organic foods that are packaged in non-toxic containers or materials makes for a delicious way to get the most benefits possible from the foods we enjoy.52,66

Gut Microbiome Support

microbiome mental healthAccording to Butler et al’s research published in 2019, the trillions of micro-organisms in the gut play incredibly important roles in mental health, with the power of influencing mood positively and reducing anxiety. Anxiety and depression are 2 major reasons a large percentage of North Americans seek psychiatric drugs for symptom relief. The microbiome can be healthy and functioning well with the right support or can be out of balance and unable to fulfill its important functions. Just like an orchestra, where one out-of-tune violin can make the whole works sound awfully sour, the workings of the human body were meant to be a harmonized work of art to dwell in. “Tuning-up” the microbiome weighs in as a superior, natural alternative to Ativan and other prescription drugs.63

Avoid MSG

The amino acid glutamate is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter. In fact, glutamate is the most prominent of all human excitatory neurotransmitters in the human body. Glutamate’s role is to precisely regulate an incredible array of important and vital functions in the body. MSG or monosodium glutamate is a synthesized version of glutamate that is frequently used as a flavor enhancer in processed foods that otherwise wouldn’t taste quite so good. The body does not distinguish between glutamate and monosodium glutamate.64 There is a body of research that shows the body releases high levels of natural glutamate during episodes of depression, trauma, anxiety, and stress, for example in persons suffering from PTSD. This phenomenon is termed “glutamate dysregulation.” 65

That might sound like a good thing, except for the fact that despite glutamate being a powerful regulating neurotransmitter, there CAN be too much of a good thing. When the volume of glutamate becomes overly concentrated it becomes neurotoxic, triggering cell death in the surrounding cells. This suggests one should avoid overconsumption of any food additives that will be too much for the CNS to handle. While more research is definitely indicated, caution can inform the best food choices possible, as a workable alternative to Ativan or drugs, to avoid any chance of negative impacts on health.23

Another important point is that MSG is often called by other names that sound quite wholesome, i.e., hydrolyzed protein, yeast, etc. Please research how and where MSG is disguised on food labels so that you can choose to avoid any confusion about what you are consuming.53

Avoid Aspartame (excitotoxin, artificial sweetener)

The research on aspartame is so clear, that the only unanswered question seems to be, “Why hasn’t it been banned?” The research of Maher and Wurtman going all the way back to 1987 and subsequent studies such as those by Choudhary and Lee in 2018 clearly show the physical and mental health consequences attributed to this widely used artificial sweetener. The patent on aspartame expired in 1992 but the product is still marketed under different brand names that line the shelves of grocery stores everywhere. Excitotoxins like aspartame overstimulate the cells (stimulation can be addictive) along their neural pathways and incite cell death as a result. Direct and indirect effects manifest in a host of troubling symptoms such as headaches, seizures, mood swings, depression, panic attacks, anxiety, and insomnia. These are the very symptoms that often lead to seeking prescription drugs. A better alternative to Ativan would be avoiding such consequences by avoiding foods enhanced with excitotoxins.50,67,68

Corrected Diet

A number of enlightening studies have been published showing some tremendously positive effects of a corrected diet. Research has reported a significant reduction of a wide range of psychiatric symptoms through diet and supplementation alone, making diet correction high on the list as an effective Ativan alternative strategy for mental health.69

Influence of Toxins and Heavy Metals on Anxiety Symptoms

Have you ever considered how the environment can personally affect your mental health? The foundation of environmental medicine is that what we are exposed to in our environment and what we eat have an effect on our health. Environmental medicine examines the role of toxins, pesticides, air pollutants, heavy metals, and other environmental factors. This way of approaching medicine allows an exploration of pertinent interactions between your health and your environment, and how the environment is contributing to mental illness, disease, and addiction.70

toxic brain chemistryToxins are among the known causes of anxiety.72 Orisakwe’s 2014 review of hundreds of clinical trials notes that psychiatric symptoms are more prevalent in urban areas compared to rural areas. A further correlation is made between increased pollution of air, water, etc. in urbanized areas, as a likely culprit for toxic effects. (also see the section on toxic body care products, below.) Over the course of life, toxins accumulate in the cells of the body, the blood, the brain, and the nervous system. These toxins can create the effect of an over-stimulated nervous system. Pesticides are a good example to understand this phenomenon. Pesticides are designed to kill insects, for example, grasshoppers, and function in the following way: the toxin permeates into the exoskeleton and finds its way to the nervous system. Pesticides cause acetylcholine channels to stay open, not allowing these channels to properly close. Acetylcholine is a stimulating neurotransmitter and will make the grasshopper jump, twitch, have muscle contractions, and eventually become exhausted. This continual activation of acetylcholine channels eventually puts the grasshopper into a catatonic state followed by death. This is how pesticides kill pests and their mechanisms of action are similar to the way excitotoxins harm human cells by the overstimulation that occurs after toxic exposures.71

Accumulated exposure to acetylcholine affects humans similar to the grasshopper. Toxins can include heavy metals, mold, mycotoxins, MSG, aspartame, and thousands of other chemicals found in processed foods and hygiene products that have similar excitotoxic effects. Through medical testing and constant patient monitoring at Alternative to Meds Center, we often identify an accumulation of neurotoxins over-stimulating the nervous system of individuals with anxiety. Cleansing these from the body is one highly effective alternative to Ativan or other drugs. L-theanine, as found in green tea or in supplement form, has been shown to protect against neuronal cell death.71

Heavy Metals and Psychiatric Symptoms

toxic heavy metalsA wealth of research data has documented the adverse effects of heavy metals on the body and on mental health. Heavy metals can include lead from proximity to airplane fuel or older water pipes (pre-1978), mercury, commonly found in dental amalgam, and cadmium from tobacco grown in contaminated soil, as a few examples of sources of potential exposures.7,25,92

Heavy metals tend to accumulate in the body over time. The presence of toxic heavy metals including mercury can be tested using a “provoked chelation” challenge to measure accumulations of this known neurotoxin. Mercury was found to correlate with the debilitation of the serotonin-melatonin pathway in animal studies.26

Testing done on human populations shows long-term exposure to mercury causes memory impairment, depression, anxiety, abnormal irritability, and mental excitement. These are often symptoms that tranquilizers are prescribed to treat, but drug therapy does not involve cleansing out the heavy metals responsible for these symptoms. Likely, Ativan treatment would be ineffective because drug therapy cannot address the actual source of the problems. Alternatives to Ativan such as cleaning up the toxic load in the body would address these problems at their source.27,44

Non-toxic Body Care Products

The CDC reported in 2020 that the number of women taking antidepressants is more than double the number of men.89 According to a 2017 report in Statista, women also use skincare products daily at just about double the frequency of men.90 Prenatal exposure to scented and cleaning products was studied by researchers in 2021, who observed a threefold increase in mental-health comorbidities in those children who were exposed to those chemicals.91

A question arises–could there be a connection between toxic personal product use and the need for antidepressant prescriptions? It takes time to research the chemicals used in cosmetics, face creams, and hair products, but we believe it’s an important subject to research to avoid potential health consequences.

If you would like to research what chemicals are in products you might use, check out Skin Deep where you will find a wealth of useful information. You can access the chemical profiles of over 77,000 body care products. As a health-conscious consumer who is interested in making the best product choices about healthy alternatives to Ativan or other drugs, education is the best armor.51

Physical Therapies as Ativan Alternatives

Massage, Thermotherapy, Relaxation as Alternatives to Ativan

Sherman et al’s exciting 12-week trial treated 68 patients with generalized anxiety disorder with therapeutic massage, thermotherapy, and time spent in relaxation rooms. Therapy was delivered in regular weekly sessions and found that 100% of the participants showed a significant reduction in depression, stress, anxiety, and other GAD-related symptoms at the end of the trial. After a follow-up at 26 weeks, the researchers found all participants had retained these improvements. Other studies have shown similar benefits from learning self-administered relaxation techniques.28,55

Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medicine

Aung et al’s extensive review of published materials on Traditional Chinese Medicine showed definite efficacy when used as alternatives to Ativan or other drug therapy for psychiatric disorders and symptoms.29

Tu et al’s 2019 thorough review of medical literature on the use of acupuncture for various psychiatric symptoms and disorders shows the efficacy of using acupuncture in mental health treatment and suggests more clinical trials and studies could provide a better understanding of how acupuncture may benefit the neuropathways involved in such disorders.79

Supplements — Effective Ativan Alternatives

orthomolecular medicine ativan alternativeAn article by Shaheen and Vieria was published in The Nutritional Journal in 2010 that reviewed over 60 studies on approximately 2600 participants using nutritional and herbal remedies for treating psychiatric symptoms. Their review concluded that “based on the available evidence, it appears that nutritional and herbal supplementation is an effective method for treating anxiety and anxiety-related conditions without the risk of serious side effects.” 80 Our work using nutritional and other alternatives to Ativan and similar drugs to help our clients at Alternative to Meds Center resonates in full harmony with their findings. This and other studies have found “strong evidence” for the efficacy of numerous alternative treatments including passionflower, kava, and combinations of amino acids such as L-lysine and L-arginine and others, as effective treatments for anxiety and other symptoms.34,35,36,38,31


There exists much research on the use of GABA as an effective natural alternative to pharmaceutical treatments for anxiety, stress, and related symptoms such as Hepsomali et al’s 2020 review published in Frontiers in Neuroscience. Adham et al’s 2006 study found that GABA produced relaxation and diminished anxiety within one hour of oral administration.33,54


Abram Hoffer and Linus Pauling were not the only researchers to report the beneficial effects of niacin (Vitamin B3) in its various forms. Hospital News in 2005 also found the form of niacin called niacinamide provided anti-anxiety results comparable to those of benzodiazepines, but without the side effects.37,81

Magnesium – Alternative to Ativan for Stress, Anxiety

Boyle et al’s 2017 systematic review extensively examined medical literature on magnesium as a treatment for anxiety and stress. The review concluded that magnesium produced a beneficial effect on anxiety and stress responses.39

Cannabidiol (medical marijuana)

Medical marijuana has been in the spotlight since changes in the law in many locations have made this healing substance more accessible to many. Misunderstandings still seem to exist about the differences between THC (recreational) and CBD (medical) marijuana.

CBD is non-psychoactive. It has been shown to be an effective alternative to Ativan and other pharmaceuticals in treating anxiety, cancer, nausea after chemotherapy, and a very long list of other benefits. For pain relief, it can be a safe alternative choice over the risks of addictive pain medications.40,73

Melatonin for Sleep, Additional Benefits

Ativan alternatives for sleep include nighttime use of melatonin. Garzon et al’s clinical study of the effects of melatonin documented significant improvements in sleep as well as significant improvements in depression and anxiety after a two-month trial. The study also reports participants were able to discontinue hypnotic drug-based behavioral disorder therapy with the use of melatonin in an elderly group of patients.41

Tryptophan for Insomnia, anxiety

Tryptophan has been shown to significantly improve severe chronic insomnia and anxiety in a number of trials in a clinical, controlled setting. The use of lorazepam compared to non-drug-protocols for sleep showed lorazepam (Ativan) carried high risks for abuse and addiction and other unwanted side effects in a clinical trial. These side effects can be avoided using natural sleep aids such as tryptophan as an alternative to Ativan or other drugs.42,74,76

5-HTP to Support Natural Mental Health

Just like it takes more than one brick to build a bridge, many nutrient-based remedies can blend in a synergistic way to build a solid foundation for natural mental health. 5-HTP is an interesting over-the-counter supplement that is made from the seeds of a shrub that grows in West Africa, called Griffonia simplicifolia. It is not known to occur in foods but is produced by the body. This natural chemical is a direct precursor in the synthesis of serotonin. 5-HTP anxiolytic effects were demonstrated in Carnevale et al’s experiments on rats in 2011. The research suggested the supplement could provide moderate relief for symptoms of anxiety in humans as well, making it a moderately effective alternative to Ativan, without the risks of abuse, addiction, or other side effects.45,77

Valerian – Natural Sedative

Pakseresht et al’s 2011 study on the extract of valerian in treating OCD patients demonstrated significant improvements compared to the placebo group in this 8-week double-blind randomized trial. Donath’s 2000 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study showed that valerian improved the quality of sleep in participants compared to placebo, and other studies have shown a sedative effect for this over-the-counter herbal supplement.33,75,78

Avoid Exposure to Toxic Mold – Important Ativan Alternative Strategy

Exposure to toxic mold is one of the most overlooked factors when analyzing the soaring numbers in the population who suffer from such symptoms as fatigue, memory problems, depression, and anxiety, all of which are symptoms of toxic mold exposure.

Studies show that people residing in mold-contaminated houses or workplaces are more likely to suffer from depression, inability to concentrate, insomnia, and numerous other symptoms.20,21

Recommended reading:  Mold Warriors:  Fighting America’s Hidden Health Threat by Ritchie C. Shoemaker.19

A Good Night’s Sleep

Sleep is a hot topic, according to a 2018 study by Vijay et al published in the Healthcare Journal, 81 that reports over 83 million Americans get less than 7 hours of sleep a night. Not only Americans — it’s a global problem. There are many non-pharmaceutical interventions like the supplements listed above, that could improve the quality of sleep needed for optimum energy, clearheadedness, bright mood, and other health benefits. Create a sleeping environment devoid of electronics and blue light, invest in properly sized pillows, black-out curtains, adequate ventilation, and noise control, are some examples of workable and effective alternatives to Ativan or other drugs for sleep.17,18,33,41,61,72,82

Psychotherapy in Benzo Recovery

CBT and other forms of talk therapy have been shown very helpful during recovery from benzodiazepine use and for the resolution of personal struggles that could have led to a prescription in the first place.

According to Mayo-Wilson and other researchers, CBT and other forms of talk therapy are a helpful Ativan alternative treatment, for anxiety disorders that are notorious for contributing to other symptoms such as insomnia and depression. Find a counselor you feel able to connect with and see if the results are at least as effective, if not more effective than tranquilizers.4,5,16

Ativan Addiction and Abuse

“I think the major achievement has been to give emphasis to the need that if a doctor prescribes medication, he or she must have to think their way right through to the end and how they are going to discontinue it. It does not sound like a major achievement, but I think it is. It means that we will not be overtaken again by a benzodiazepine‐type disaster that gives a great deal of symptomatic distress to a large number of patients world‐wide. Safeguards are now in place, for example, if a company today is developing a new psychotropic drug, they have to spend quite a deal of effort on showing what happens when you try to stop. That, in terms of number of people times symptomatic distress, is the most important thing that I have done.” ~ from a 2005 interview with Professor Malcolm H Lader, who sadly passed away in 2020. Lader was a much celebrated and beloved leader in UK addictions research with a focus on pharmacology.93

In a SAMHSA report from 2011, 60,200 individuals were receiving substance abuse treatment for addiction to benzodiazepines.83 Between 1995 and 2002, benzodiazepine-related ER visits involving drug abuse increased by 41%. These rising numbers show a concerning trend in the growing impacts of the addictive potential of benzodiazepines.2

At Alternative to Meds Center we use Ativan alternative treatments and a wide range of holistic therapies to transition from benzodiazepine addiction or dependence to a state of drug-free natural mental wellness.

Ativan Alternatives at Alternative to Meds

benzo recovery sedona drug rehabWhat really sets us apart from other residential mental health treatment centers is our concentration on the restoration of neurochemical processes and the balancing of neurotransmitter function through medical-grade supplements, lab testing, and additional scientifically focused holistic treatments.

  • We provide a variety of holistic treatments and will customize an individualized medication tapering program for each of our clients for the relief of Ativan withdrawal symptoms.
  • We specialize in Ativan alternatives help, and therapeutic guidance, and provide medically monitored tapering.

During your inpatient stay with us, based on the results of your lab tests, your personal medical history, and preferences our medical staff will work with you to determine the Ativan alternatives that work best for you. Neurotoxin removal, neurochemistry rehabilitation, massage, acupuncture, equine-assisted therapy, nebulized glutathione treatments, IV treatments, are a sampling of the services delivered at the center. Please review our services overview page for many more therapeutic options available. Our goal is to provide the safest, most comfortable, and most successful lorazepam withdrawal holistic treatment using Ativan alternatives that is available anywhere in the world.

Read Our eBook on the Alternatives to Benzodiazepines

1. Lakhan SE, Vieira KF. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review. Nutr J. 2010 Oct 7;9:42. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-9-42. PMID: 20929532; PMCID: PMC2959081. [cited 2022 June 28]

2. Ree E, Redman T, et al., “The Beyond Benzodiazepines Manual.” Reconexxion [Internet] 1997, rev 2010  [cited 2022 June 28]

3. Yang B, Wei J, Ju P, Chen J. Effects of regulating intestinal microbiota on anxiety symptoms: A systematic review. Gen Psychiatr. 2019 May 17;32(2):e100056. doi: 10.1136/gpsych-2019-100056. PMID: 31179435; PMCID: PMC6551444. [cited 2022 June 28]

4. Carpenter JK, Andrews LA, Witcraft SM, Powers MB, Smits JAJ, Hofmann SG. Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and related disorders: A meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Depress Anxiety. 2018 Jun;35(6):502-514. doi: 10.1002/da.22728. Epub 2018 Feb 16. PMID: 29451967; PMCID: PMC5992015. [cited 2022 June 28]

5. Mayo-Wilson E, et al., “Psychological and pharmacological interventions for social anxiety disorder in adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis” The Lancet Psychiatry, 2014 Sep 25 [Internet] DOI: [cited 2022 June 28]

6. Bremner JD, Moazzami K, Wittbrodt MT, Nye JA, Lima BB, Gillespie CF, Rapaport MH, Pearce BD, Shah AJ, Vaccarino V. Diet, Stress and Mental Health. Nutrients. 2020 Aug 13;12(8):2428. doi: 10.3390/nu12082428. PMID: 32823562; PMCID: PMC7468813. [cited 2022 June 28]

7. CDC report Sources of Lead Exposure [published 2022] [cited 2022 June 28]

8. Greenberg, M. I. (2001). Benzodiazepine Withdrawal: Potentially Fatal, Commonly Missed: Following benzodiazepine cessation, withdrawal symptoms may begin within 24 hours or take up to two weeks to develop. Emergency Medicine News, 23(12), 18. [cited 2022 June 28]

9. Ashton H. Protracted withdrawal syndromes from benzodiazepines. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1991;8(1-2):19-28. doi: 10.1016/0740-5472(91)90023-4. PMID: 1675688. [cited 2022 June 28]

10. Overdose Death Rates National Institute on Drug Abuse Mar 10, 2020 [cited 2022 June 28]

11. American Journal of Public Health Increasing Benzodiazepine Prescriptions and Overdose Mortality in the United States, 1996–2013 by Marcus A. Bachhuber MD, MSHP, Sean Hennessy PharmD, PhD, Chinazo O. Cunningham MD, MS, and Joanna L. Starrels MD, MS Published Online: March 09, 2016 [cited 2022 June 28]

12. Ashton H. Guidelines for the rational use of benzodiazepines. When and what to use. Drugs. 1994 Jul;48(1):25-40. doi: 10.2165/00003495-199448010-00004. PMID: 7525193. [cited 2022 June 28]

13. Medical News Today The benefits and risks of benzodiazepines Medically reviewed by Alan Carter, Pharm.D. — Written by Joseph Nordqvist — Updated on November 8, 2020 [cited 2022 June 28]

14. Benzodiazepines: Revisiting Clinical Issues in Treating Anxiety Disorders. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;7(1):23-32. PMID: 15841190; PMCID: PMC1076447.[cited 2022 June 28]

15. Meier PJ, Ziegler WH, Neftel K. Benzodiazepine–Praxis und Probleme ihrer Anwendung [Benzodiazepine–practice and problems of its use]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1988 Mar 19;118(11):381-92. German. PMID: 3287602. [cited 2022 June 28]

16. Otte C. Cognitive behavioral therapy in anxiety disorders: current state of the evidence. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2011;13(4):413-421. doi:10.31887/DCNS.2011.13.4/cotte [cited 2022 June 28]

17. American Academy of Sleep Medicine Healthy Sleep Habits Updated Feb. 9, 2017 [cited 2022 June 28]

18. Downie LE, Keller PR, Busija L, Lawrenson JG, Hull CC. Blue‐light filtering spectacle lenses for visual performance, sleep, and macular health in adultsCochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019;2019(1):CD013244. Published 2019 Jan 16. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD013244 [cited 2022 June 28]

19. Mold Warriors: Fighting America’s Hidden Health Threat Paperback – April 1, 2005 by Ritchie C. Shoemaker (Author), James Schaller (Author), Patti Schmidt (Author) [cited 2022 June 28]

20. Rea WJ, Didriksen N, Simon TR, Pan Y, Fenyves EJ, Griffiths B. Effects of toxic exposure to molds and mycotoxins in building-related illnesses. Arch Environ Health. 2003 Jul;58(7):399-405. doi: 10.1080/00039896.2003.11879140. PMID: 15143852. [cited 2022 June 28]

21. Edmondson DA, Nordness ME, Zacharisen MC, Kurup VP, Fink JN. Allergy and “toxic mold syndrome”. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005 Feb;94(2):234-9. doi: 10.1016/S1081-1206(10)61301-4. PMID: 15765738. [cited 2022 June 28]

22. Potera C. Molding a link to depression. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115(11):A536. doi:10.1289/ehp.115-a536a. [cited 2022 June 28]

23. Miladinovic T, Nashed MG, Singh G. Overview of Glutamatergic Dysregulation in Central Pathologies. Biomolecules. 2015;5(4):3112-3141. Published 2015 Nov 11. doi:10.3390/biom5043112. [cited 2022 June 28]

24. Firth J, Gangwisch JE, Borisini A, Wootton RE, Mayer EA. Food and mood: how do diet and nutrition affect mental wellbeing? [published correction appears in BMJ. 2020 Nov 9;371:m4269]. BMJ. 2020;369:m2382. Published 2020 Jun 29. doi:10.1136/bmj.m2382 [cited 2022 June 28]

25. Orisakwe OE. The role of lead and cadmium in psychiatry. N Am J Med Sci. 2014;6(8):370-376. doi:10.4103/1947-2714.139283. [cited 2022 June 28]

26. Maximino C, Araujo J, Leão LK, Grisolia AB, Oliveira KR, Lima MG, Batista Ede J, Crespo-López ME, Gouveia A Jr, Herculano AM. Possible role of serotoninergic system in the neurobehavioral impairment induced by acute methylmercury exposure in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2011 Nov-Dec;33(6):727-34. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2011 Aug 18. PMID: 21871955. [cited 2022 June 28]

27. Nicholas J. Heyer, Diana Echeverria, Alvah C. Bittner, Jr., Federico M. Farin, Claire C. Garabedian, James S. Woods, Chronic Low-Level Mercury Exposure, BDNF Polymorphism, and Associations with Self-Reported Symptoms and Mood, Toxicological Sciences, Volume 81, Issue 2, October 2004, Pages 354–363. [cited 2022 June 28]

28. Sherman KJ, Ludman EJ, Cook AJ, Hawkes RJ, Roy-Byrne PP, Bentley S, Brooks MZ, Cherkin DC. Effectiveness of therapeutic massage for generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Depress Anxiety. 2010 May;27(5):441-50. doi: 10.1002/da.20671. PMID: 20186971; PMCID: PMC2922919. [cited 2022 June 28]

29. Aung SK, Fay H, Hobbs RF 3rd. Traditional Chinese Medicine as a Basis for Treating Psychiatric Disorders: A Review of Theory with Illustrative Cases. Med Acupunct. 2013;25(6):398-406. doi:10.1089/acu.2013.1007. [cited 2022 June 28]

30. Pilkington K, Kirkwood G, Rampes H, Cummings M, Richardson J. Acupuncture for anxiety and anxiety disorders–a systematic literature review. Acupunct Med. 2007 Jun;25(1-2):1-10. doi: 10.1136/aim.25.1-2.1. PMID: 17641561. [cited 2022 June 28]

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Originally Published Oct 30, 2018 by Lyle Murphy

This content has been reviewed and approved by a licensed physician.

Dr. Samuel Lee

Dr. Samuel Lee is a board-certified psychiatrist, specializing in a spiritually-based mental health discipline and integrative approaches. He graduated with an MD at Loma Linda University School of Medicine and did a residency in psychiatry at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle. He has also been an inpatient adult psychiatrist at Kaweah Delta Mental Health Hospital and the primary attending geriatric psychiatrist at the Auerbach Inpatient Psychiatric Jewish Home Hospital. In addition, he served as the general adult outpatient psychiatrist at Kaiser Permanente.  He is board-certified in psychiatry and neurology and has a B.A. Magna Cum Laude in Religion from Pacific Union College. His specialty is in natural healing techniques that promote the body’s innate ability to heal itself.

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