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Vitamins for Mental Health | Natural Solutions!

Last Updated on March 30, 2023 by Diane Ridaeus

Alternative to Meds Editorial Team
Medically Reviewed by Dr Samuel Lee MD

Vitamins and supplements for mental health include minerals and micronutrients which all help support human health.4 Keeping the importance of diet in mind, it is troubling that since about 1950, research has found an alarming rate of vanishing nutrients in our crops.1 The chemicals left over from WWII that were used in manufacturing TNT bombs, (nitrogen, ammonia), began to be recycled for widespread use as fertilizer.It is probably a coincidence, but interesting that this is also when prescriptions for antidepressants also began to soar.2

Good Mental Health Requires Good Nutrition

vitamins for good mental health

The power of nutrition has been a main focus at Alternative to Meds Center for nearly 20 years. You can read about our independently documented success rate, based on the outcomes of thousands of clients who came to us to recover mental wellness using holistic, proven protocols. Orthomolecular medicine, environmental medicine, medical oversight, and complementary medicine have been the driving forces behind our programs, and the results speak for themselves.
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Declining Nutrition, Declining Mental Health?

Soil, just like the human body, can be mismanaged to the point where its life-sustaining properties become lost. In this article, we look at potential reasons these post-WWII phenomena have occurred and outline some of the ways we can help turn the tide.

good mental health needs good nutritionIs there a connection between declining mental health globally and declining nutrition? Some key data points stand out like beacons in a storm taken from the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.5 Additional studies report similar observations, as found in the Journal of World Psychiatry, the Peer Journal, and the British Journal of Nutrition.12-15 Consider these facts reported in the medical literature:

  1. Mental health conditions such as depression are on the rise.
  2. Prescription drug use is on the rise.
  3. Poor mental health is associated with poor diet.
  4. An improved diet significantly protects against the emergence of mental health conditions, and against cancer, diabetes, and heart disease.
  5. Supplements are recommended, especially where diets are poor, the nutrient density of soils is declining, and to compensate for the disappearing nutritive values in foods.
  6. While the problem is seen most acutely in areas of poverty, these problems are global in scope.

Major Increases of Prescribed Drugs — But What Success?

Prescription drug therapy has been the overarching choice for the treatment of mental health for more than a century. It takes a keen and objective eye to sift through the mountainous haze of drug advertising, anecdotal evidence, and changing opinions about the safety and efficacy of the most widely used drugs in the field of mental health. How effective are prescription drugs for mental health, and how safe are they? Are they hitting the right treatment targets?

The NIH (National Institute for Mental Health) published statistics in 2017 showing that approximately 7% of the US population (which amounts to about 24 million people) suffer from social anxiety disorders.8 The number of sufferers over the last few decades has been steadily increasing — not decreasing — and the volume of prescription drugs has also soared alongside.6

While we are not saying that prescription drugs have absolutely no place in medicine, with results like these, how can the prescription drug protocol for mental health still remain seen as successful?

Clinical Trial Reveals Surprising Info on Prescription Drug Efficacy

A 2014 study authored by Dr. Mayo-Wilson, was published in the Lancet Journal which might help shed some light on the above questions.7 The authors note that since at least some aspects of mental health can be viewed as subjective in nature, it could be considered challenging to compare the efficacy of one type of treatment over another. Using SMD (standardized mean differences) is considered an effective way to tabulate comparative results in clinical trials, giving a reliable measuring stick for the measurement of “effect size” that is frequently used in clinical testing and research.9

The Bottom Line — Comparative Results Tabulated

Mayo-Wilson et al.’s review tabulated respective SMD scores from various psychological and pharmacological interventions. The researchers tabulated and compared the results of over 13,000 adult participants in more than 100 clinical trials over a 25-year period. The psychological interventions consisted of individual CBT, group CBT, exposure therapy, and other forms of talk therapy. To further compare protocols, the review also monitored pharmacological treatment results, tabulated using SMD scores. The classes of drugs included benzodiazepines, SSRIs, SNRIs, MAOIs, and anticonvulsant drugs.

cognitive behavioral therapy for mental healthAfter comparing the SMD scores from all these classes of interventions, results showed that individual CBT (a popular and practical form of talk therapy that devises better ways to manage stress triggers) generally outperformed all the above-mentioned classes of drug therapy. The Lancet review also noted the advantage of eliminating adverse drug side effects often reported in connection with pharmacological treatments. The problem of drug-induced adverse reactions is formally recognized as being so significant that the FDA has set up a website called “Medwatch” for doctors and patients to report such adverse drug effects.10 From such reports, the FDA can initiate drug recalls, issue “black box” warnings, or modify prescribing guidelines for specific drugs. MedWatch reports make up a comprehensive, long-term body of data on drug side effects.11

Dr. Mayo-Wilson’s extensive review of multiple modes of treatment, spanning 25 years, offers valuable, evidence-based guidance for the millions of people who may be searching for drug-free pathways to recovery from or prevention of symptoms such as anxiety. It seems as though we should focus on the therapeutics and protocols that DO work, to help rein in this skyrocketing problem.

The “Winning Triad” of Self-help Protocols for Mental Health Support

HEPAS for mental healthThe 2020 Journal of Neuropsychiatric Disease Treatment refers to the “winning triad” consisting of healthy eating, physical activity, and improved sleep hygiene (HEPAS) which has reciprocal, measurable positive effects on mental health.26 Authors Bruguglio et al encourage more use of HEPAS in clinical, hospital, and other treatment settings due to their unquestionable efficacy. So we see that drug therapy has a curiously predominant status in mental health treatment when compared to other non-drug protocols with documented superior efficacy. Here we will focus on one leg of the HEPAS triad, the therapeutic use of nutrition and supplementation.

Accordingly, below you will find an informative description of documented clinical research done on vitamins in particular, with a link to other information on additional micronutrients, and macronutrients, as applied to mental health which paints a much rosier and hopeful picture for effective mental health support.

Vitamins for Natural Mental Health Support

In healthy soils, more nutrients can be transferred into crops. With the right raw materials in one’s diet, the body can utilize an adequate supply of the essential nutrients that are derived from foods. But some nutrients are not available directly from food sources, and the body does not make these. These must be supplemented for adequate intake. A sampling of these can be found further in the article.

Lab testing is highly recommended to assess deficiencies. For clarity and ease of reference, food sources for these essential nutrients are listed further in the article, and a link to information about minerals and other micronutrients for natural mental health can be found at the end of this article.

Vitamins for natural mental health improvements include:
  • Vitamin A
  • B-complex vitamins
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamins K-1 and K-2

Fat-Soluble Vitamin A — Vitamin A (retinol) is fat-soluble, and is best taken with other oil-based vitamins and foods. Known as the anti-inflammation vitamin, supports many physical functions in the body such as eyesight, the immune system which fights infection, and maintaining the integrity of the intestinal walls and other mucoid tissues. A compromised gut can lead to secondary physical and mental health problems. Vitamin A and probiotics working in tandem with the correct diet are other recommended methods of supporting gut efficiency. 17,31

vitamins for mental healthVitamin B-complex — The entire range of B vitamins, including B1,2,3,5,6,7,8,9, and 12, are known to be beneficial for mental health. Vitamins B4 is not completely understood, and there is a lack of information on it, so it is not discussed here. Some information has been disseminated in some circles raising concerns about health risks associated with vitamins, but on close study, it is found that such occurrences have been occasioned by overdose levels. B vitamins are water-soluble, and since the body cannot store them they need daily replenishment. Thiamine (B1), niacin (B3), and pantothenic acid (B5) are beneficial for anxiety symptoms. Of great interest for mental health applications, thiamine (B1) deficiency is associated with cognitive disorders, agitated delirium, and psychotic symptoms. Riboflavin (B2) is needed for the metabolism of other nutrients in the body. Vitamin B3 (niacin) was extensively studied in the late 1950s by Dr. Abram Hoffer and was found therapeutic in the treatment of acute schizophrenia. Biotin (B7), and folate (B9) are associated with lower rates of depression and anxiety, according to clinical trials. Folate deficiency (B9) results in impaired neuron cells. Pyridoxine or B6 relieves stress. Vitamin B8 is technically not a vitamin, but an essential trace element (molybdenum co-factor), that is needed in the transfer of oxygen to and from cells, as well as other essential functions. A deficiency of B8 is linked with early childhood death and psychiatric disorders. B8 is an internal life-support system. Vitamins B1, B6, and B12 work synergistically to support the central nervous system and are often combined in high-quality B complex supplements.18-23

Vitamin C — A cross-sectional placebo-controlled study published in the 2022 European Journal of Nutrition reported that deficiency of vitamin C is associated with lowered mental vitality, depression, and fatigue. Adequate vitamin C increased mental focus, improved cognitive clarity, sustained work performance and engagement, and improved mood.24

According to published evidence in the 2020 British Medical Journal, vitamin C deficiency links to a wide range of physical and mental conditions. Physical manifestations include bone loss, bleeding, scurvy, fatigue, weakened connective tissue (impaired collagen production), and more.

Psychiatric symptoms included depression, lethargy, irritability, and cognitive impairment. Since the highest concentration of vitamin C is found in the adrenal and pituitary glands, a deficiency will understandably disrupt many vital operations that are predominantly governed by these glands, including response to stress, blood pressure, growth, metabolism, the immune system, reproductive hormones, and many other functions.

Vitamin C was also found as neuroprotective as it is a co-factor in the production and transmission of natural neurochemicals such as dopamine, glutamate, serotonin, and noradrenaline. Vitamin C also regulates the release of acetylcholine and catecholamines from the nerve vesicles. Additionally, vitamin C also acts as an antioxidant in the brain and central nervous system, having a neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity.25

Vitamin D — The 2021 Journal of Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders reported that vitamin D plays a crucial role in the prevention and treatment of mental health symptoms found in neurological disorders.27 Perhaps surprisingly, since simple exposure to sunlight provides an adequate supply, vitamin D deficiency is found in alarmingly high segments of the global population. The guidance included exposure to sunlight and supplementation for treatment. Vitamin D absorption is exponentially increased in the presence of magnesium. It is a fat-soluble vitamin and should be taken with other oil-based vitamins or with oils to maximize absorption.

Vitamin E — Vitamin E is another fat-soluble vitamin that has antioxidant properties. Its neuroprotective properties help prevent neurologic and cognitive deficits, and protect the integrity of cell membranes. It has been shown helpful in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. Of the 8 different forms of this nutrient, the alpha-tocopherol version is the one that is most easily maintained in human blood plasma.28

A scoping review of nutrients recommended to improve cognitive health both in Alzheimer’s patients as well as the general population was published in the Journal of Clinical and Translational Research which cited vitamin E among 20 other phytonutrients, that were suggested to improve a wide range of mental faculties including memory, information processing speed, attention, comprehension, creative thinking, improved mood and contentedness, and many others.29

Vitamin K — Long known for cardiovascular and bone health, new evidence suggests vitamin K is also supportive of brain health due to its benefits of longer cell survival, efficient signaling, and support for cell structures. There are different versions of vitamin K. Vitamin K-2 has a longer half-life compared to the more commonly found dietary supplement K-1. Similar to vitamin E, the properties of vitamin K-2 have practical and important applications in the treatment or prevention of neurodegenerative diseases related to cell degeneration such as Alzheimer’s, dementia, and Parkinson’s disease.30

Food Sources and Supplementation Guide

The word “vitamin” is formed from two words, vita, meaning “life” and amine, referring to “amino acids,” from a former belief that vitamins were constructed from amino acids. Later, the “e” of amine was replaced with “in” — a term meaning neutral, or undefined. The “min” does not refer to minerals, as some might believe. Minerals are a separate category of nutrients that, like vitamins, are also essential for human health. Here are some good sources of vitamins from foods. A balanced diet can be deliciously created using a wide variety of foods, such as the ones listed below.

food sources of vitamins for mental healthVitamin A — Broccoli, and dark leafy greens such as kale, and spinach. Orange, red and yellow vegetables and fruits, such as tomatoes, red bell peppers, carrots, pumpkin, and squash.31

Vitamin B — Salmon, oysters, liver, eggs, milk, and beef are very good sources. Spinach, kidney beans, edamame, and chickpeas are exceptionally rich in B vitamins.32

Vitamin C — Citrus fruits such as kiwi, oranges, and grapefruit are great sources. If you can find them, Kakadu plums contain 100 times the vitamin C compared to oranges. Other very good sources include white potatoes, rose hips, chili peppers, mustard greens, broccoli, kale, acerola cherries, and bell peppers, especially sweet yellow bell peppers.33

Vitamin D — Not only the sunshine vitamin, liver and seafood are excellent sources. Choose sardines, salmon, tuna, and fish oils for vitamin D.34

Vitamin E — Seeds, and nuts make good choices, including sunflower seeds, peanuts, and peanut butter. Dark leafy veggies are also good choices, especially spinach. Oils are good sources of this fat-soluble vitamin such as wheat germ oil, and sunflower oil. These foods contain high levels of the version of vitamin E called tocopherol, the most potent antioxidant found in nature.35

Vitamin K — Natto is a potent source of vitamin K-2. Natto is made from fermented soybeans. Other very good sources of K-2 include eel, cheese, beef liver, butter, sauerkraut, and egg yolks. Vitamin K-1 is also available in dark leafy greens.36

What about Minerals and Other Micronutrients?

Please refer to our Minerals and Micronutritients for Natural Mental Health page for additional information about these important micronutrients.

Alternative to Meds Center Focuses on Nutritional Therapy

sedona drug rehabAlternative to Meds Center for mental health and recovery blends a wide range of therapies in designing an individual program for each client. Orthomolecular medicine and its nutritional approach to the improvement of natural mental health informs the main principles used in treatment, including holistic detox, medically supervised medication tapering, and more.

Whether you are struggling with unresolved mental health symptoms, wishing to eliminate and/or recover from prescription drug use, experience the benefits of neurotoxin removal, want to restructure your lifestyle with psychological therapies, or a combination of these or similar issues, Alternative to Meds may be able to provide the answers you have been looking for, and the relief you need.

Housed in a lovely inpatient setting, surrounded by nature, and in a nontoxic, nurturing and friendly environment, we have helped thousands of clients to reach their personal natural mental health goals. Please contact us today and find out more about the benefits of a corrected diet and targeted nutritional protocols for natural mental health, that are waiting for you today and every day at Alternative to Meds Center.

1. Lin W, Lin M, Zhou H, Wu H, Li Z, Lin W. The effects of chemical and organic fertilizer usage on rhizosphere soil in tea orchards. PLoS One. 2019 May 28;14(5):e0217018. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0217018. PMID: 31136614; PMCID: PMC6538140. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

2. López-Muñoz F, Alamo C. Monoaminergic neurotransmission: the history of the discovery of antidepressants from 1950s until today. Curr Pharm Des. 2009;15(14):1563-86. doi: 10.2174/138161209788168001. PMID: 19442174.[cited 2023 Feb 24]

3. Ganzel B, Reinhardt C, Wessels Living History Farm, The Postwar Fertilizer Industry Explodes[cited 2023 Feb 24]

4. Muscaritoli M. The Impact of Nutrients on Mental Health and Well-Being: Insights From the Literature. Front Nutr. 2021 Mar 8;8:656290. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2021.656290. PMID: 33763446; PMCID: PMC7982519.  [cited 2023 Feb 24]

5. Ljungberg T, Bondza E, Lethin C. Evidence of the Importance of Dietary Habits Regarding Depressive Symptoms and Depression. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Mar 2;17(5):1616. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17051616. PMID: 32131552; PMCID: PMC7084175. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

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7. Mayo-Wilson E, Dias S, Mavranezouli I, Kew K, Clark DM, Ades AE, Pilling S. Psychological and pharmacological interventions for social anxiety disorder in adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2014 Oct;1(5):368-76. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(14)70329-3. Epub 2014 Oct 7. PMID: 26361000; PMCID: PMC4287862. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

8. NIH authors Anxiety Disorder [published online N.D.] [cited 2023 Feb 24]

9. Faraone SV. Interpreting estimates of treatment effects: implications for managed care. P T. 2008 Dec;33(12):700-11. PMID: 19750051; PMCID: PMC2730804. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

10. FDA Medwatch: The FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Progam [published online N.D.]  [cited 2023 Feb 24]

11. FDA Safety Report Benzodiazepine Drug Class: Drug Safety Commission – Boxed Warning Updated to Improve Safe Use [published 09.23,2023] [cited 2023 Feb 24]

12. Adjibade M, Lemogne C, Julia C, Hercberg S, Galan P, Assmann KE, Kesse-Guyot E. Prospective association between adherence to dietary recommendations and incident depressive symptoms in the French NutriNet-Santé cohort. Br J Nutr. 2018 Aug;120(3):290-300. doi: 10.1017/S0007114518000910. Epub 2018 May 23. PMID: 29789039. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

13. Zhang FF, Barr SI, McNulty H, Li D, Blumberg JB. Health effects of vitamin and mineral supplements. BMJ. 2020 Jun 29;369:m2511. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m2511. PMID: 32601065; PMCID: PMC7322674. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

14. Firth J, Teasdale SB, Allott K, Siskind D, Marx W, Cotter J, Veronese N, Schuch F, Smith L, Solmi M, Carvalho AF, Vancampfort D, Berk M, Stubbs B, Sarris J. The efficacy and safety of nutrient supplements in the treatment of mental disorders: a meta-review of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. World Psychiatry. 2019 Oct;18(3):308-324. doi: 10.1002/wps.20672. PMID: 31496103; PMCID: PMC6732706. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

15. Montgomery DR, Biklé A, Archuleta R, Brown P, Jordan J. Soil health and nutrient density: preliminary comparison of regenerative and conventional farming. PeerJ. 2022 Jan 27;10:e12848. doi: 10.7717/peerj.12848. PMID: 35127297; PMCID: PMC8801175. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

16. Long SJ, Benton D. Effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation on stress, mild psychiatric symptoms, and mood in nonclinical samples: a meta-analysis. Psychosom Med. 2013 Feb;75(2):144-53. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31827d5fbd. Epub 2013 Jan 29. PMID: 23362497. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

17. Huang Z, Liu Y, Qi G, Brand D, Zheng SG. Role of Vitamin A in the Immune System. J Clin Med. 2018 Sep 6;7(9):258. doi: 10.3390/jcm7090258. PMID: 30200565; PMCID: PMC6162863. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

18. Mahdavifar B, Hosseinzadeh M, Salehi-Abargouei A, Mirzaei M, Vafa M. Dietary intake of B vitamins and their association with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms: A cross-sectional, population-based survey. J Affect Disord. 2021 Jun 1;288:92-98. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2021.03.055. Epub 2021 Mar 26. PMID: 33848753. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

19. Peechakara BV, Gupta M. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) [Updated 2022 May 20]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from:<  [cited 2023 Feb 24]

20. Lanska DJ. Chapter 30: historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: the water-soluble B vitamins. Handb Clin Neurol. 2010;95:445-76. doi: 10.1016/S0072-9752(08)02130-1. PMID: 19892133. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

21. Calderon-Ospina CA, Nava-Mesa MO, Paez-Hurtado AM. Update on Safety Profiles of Vitamins B1, B6, and B12: A Narrative Review. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2020 Dec 22;16:1275-1288. doi: 10.2147/TCRM.S274122. PMID: 33376337; PMCID: PMC7764703. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

22. Schwarz G, Belaidi AA. Molybdenum in human health and disease. Met Ions Life Sci. 2013;13:415-50. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_13. PMID: 24470099. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

23. Hoffer, A, Megavitamin B-3 Therapy for Schizophrenia Canadian Journal of Psychiatry Volume 16, issue 6, 1971 [published online April 2017) [cited 2023 Feb 24]

24. Sim M, Hong S, Jung S, Kim JS, Goo YT, Chun WY, Shin DM. Vitamin C supplementation promotes mental vitality in healthy young adults: results from a cross-sectional analysis and a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Nutr. 2022 Feb;61(1):447-459. doi: 10.1007/s00394-021-02656-3. Epub 2021 Sep 2. PMID: 34476568; PMCID: PMC8783887. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

25. Plevin D, Galletly C. The neuropsychiatric effects of vitamin C deficiency: a systematic review. BMC Psychiatry. 2020 Jun 18;20(1):315. doi: 10.1186/s12888-020-02730-w. PMID: 32552785; PMCID: PMC7302360. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

26. Briguglio M, Vitale JA, Galentino R, Banfi G, Zanaboni Dina C, Bona A, Panzica G, Porta M, Dell’Osso B, Glick ID. Healthy Eating, Physical Activity, and Sleep Hygiene (HEPAS) as the Winning Triad for Sustaining Physical and Mental Health in Patients at Risk for or with Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Considerations for Clinical Practice. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2020 Jan 8;16:55-70. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S229206. PMID: 32021199; PMCID: PMC6955623. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

27. Holick MF. The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: Approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2017 Jun;18(2):153-165. doi: 10.1007/s11154-017-9424-1. PMID: 28516265. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

28. Medina J, Gupta V. Vitamin E. [Updated 2022 May 13]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from:  [cited 2023 Feb 24]

29. Lewis JE, Poles J, Shaw DP, Karhu E, Khan SA, Lyons AE, Sacco SB, McDaniel HR. The effects of twenty-one nutrients and phytonutrients on cognitive function: A narrative review. J Clin Transl Res. 2021 Aug 4;7(4):575-620. PMID: 34541370; PMCID: PMC8445631. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

30. Maresz K. Growing Evidence of a Proven Mechanism Shows Vitamin K2 Can Impact Health Conditions Beyond Bone and Cardiovascular. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2021 Aug;20(4):34-38. PMID: 34602875; PMCID: PMC8483258. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

31. McEldrew EP, Lopez MJ, Milstein H. Vitamin A. 2022 Jul 11. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan–. PMID: 29493984. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

32. Hanna M, Jaqua E, Nguyen V, Clay J. B Vitamins: Functions and Uses in Medicine. Perm J. 2022 Jun 29;26(2):89-97. doi: 10.7812/TPP/21.204. Epub 2022 Jun 17. PMID: 35933667; PMCID: PMC9662251. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

33. NIH Health Professional Fact Sheet Vitamin C [published online Mar 26, 2021]  [cited 2023 Feb 24]

34. Lamberg-Allardt C. Vitamin D in foods and as supplements. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2006 Sep;92(1):33-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2006.02.017. Epub 2006 Feb 28. PMID:16618499. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

35. Lehmann J, Martin HL, Lashley EL, Marshall MW, Judd JT. Vitamin E in foods from high and low linoleic acid diets. J Am Diet Assoc. 1986 Sep;86(9):1208-16. PMID: 3745745. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

36. Booth SL. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes. Food Nutr Res. 2012;56. doi: 10.3402/fnr.v56i0.5505. Epub 2012 Apr 2. PMID: 22489217; PMCID: PMC3321250. [cited 2023 Feb 24]

Originally Published February 24, 2023 by Diane Ridaeus

This content has been reviewed and approved by a licensed physician.

Dr. Samuel Lee

Dr. Samuel Lee is a board-certified psychiatrist, specializing in a spiritually-based mental health discipline and integrative approaches. He graduated with an MD at Loma Linda University School of Medicine and did a residency in psychiatry at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle. He has also been an inpatient adult psychiatrist at Kaweah Delta Mental Health Hospital and the primary attending geriatric psychiatrist at the Auerbach Inpatient Psychiatric Jewish Home Hospital. In addition, he served as the general adult outpatient psychiatrist at Kaiser Permanente.  He is board-certified in psychiatry and neurology and has a B.A. Magna Cum Laude in Religion from Pacific Union College. His specialty is in natural healing techniques that promote the body’s innate ability to heal itself.

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Nothing on this Website is intended to be taken as medical advice. The information provided on the website is intended to encourage, not replace, direct patient-health professional relationships. Always consult with your doctor before altering your medications. Adding nutritional supplements may alter the effect of medication. Any medication changes should be done only after proper evaluation and under medical supervision.

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